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Flashcards in Unit Test 1 Deck (94):
1

What does DNA stand for?

Deoxyribonucleic acid

2

What are the three roles of DNA?

Store, copy, transmit

3

What are the subunits called that make up DNA?

Nucleotides

4

Sketch and label the parts of a DNA nucleotide.

O=phosphate, house shape=deoxyribose sugar, Rectanvle=base

5

Name the four nitrogen bases on DNA and their complimentary base pairs.

Adenine-Thymine, Thymine-Adenine, Guanine-Cytosine, Cytosine-Guanine

6

What is the difference between a purine and a pyrimidine?

Purines=2 rings, Pyrimidines=1 ring

7

What are two purines?

Adenine, Guanine

8

What are two pyrimidines?

Thymine, Cytosine

9

Who is given credit for determining the structure of the DNA molecule?

Watson and Crick in 1953

10

What is the shape of the DNA model known as?

Double helix

11

What makes up the sides of a DNA molecule?

Phosphates and Sugars

12

What makes up the "steps" of a DNA molecule?

Nitrogen Bases-A,T,G,C

13

How did Rosalind Franklin contribute to determining the structure of DNA?

She used Xray defraction

14

What type of bonds gold the paired DNA bases together? Are they strong or weak bonds?

Hydrogen bonds; classified as weak bonds because they are easily and rapidly formed and broken under normal biological conditions

15

What makes up the "backbone" of the DNA molecule?

Sugar and phosphate groups

16

What type of bonds hold the "backbone" together?

Covalent bond, stronger than hydrogen bond

17

How does the nucleotide sequence in one chain of DNA compare with the other chain of DNA?

For one codon, there is always another codon with the opposite sequence

18

Why must DNA be able to make copies of itself?

If it never replicated, meiosis and mitosis would slowly halve the size of the genome until each cell would die

19

What is DNA replication?

Process by which a double stranded DNA molecule is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules

20

What is the first step that must occur in DNA replication?

"Unzip" the double helix structure of the DNA molecule, also known as "replication bubble"

21

What acts as the template in DNA replication?

The original strand

22

What is a replication bubble?

The setting for DNA replication

23

What enzymes help separate the 2 strands of nucleotides on DNA?

Helicase

24

What bonds do helices break?

Hydrogen bonds

25

What is the function of DNA polymerases?

Verify the correct nucleotide in place

26

Why does DNA replication take place at many places on the molecule simultaneously?

It speeds up the process

27

When replication is complete, how do the two new DNA molecules compare to each other and the original DNA molecule?

Identical to each other; semi-conservative replication

28

How does the plasma membrane work?

It regulates materials entering and leaving the cell

29

What is the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?

Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus and is not found in mammals, eukaryotic cells has a nucleus and is found in mammals

30

What is energy?

ability to do work

31

What is the order in which the DNA moves?

DNA, mRNA, tRNA, Amino Acid

32

What did Friedrich Miescher do?

Isolated the first crude preparation of DNA, named it nuclein

33

What did Oswald Avery do?

Showed that Fred Griffith's "transforming principle" was DNA

34

What did Erwin Chargaff do?

Isolated DNA from different organisms

35

What did Rosalind Franklin do?

Produced the X-ray crystallography pictures of BDNA

36

What did Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase do?

Proved that phage DNA was genetic material

37

What did James Watson and Francis Crick do?

Came up with double helix structure for DNA

38

What did Francis Crick do?

Proposed the Central Dogma and Adaptor Hypothesis

39

What dud Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl do?

Proved Watson and Crick's model of semi-conservative replication

40

What is the backbone of DNA composed of?

Sugar-phosphate

41

What part of the "backbone" connects to the nitrogen bases?

Hydrogen Bonds

42

What is the monomer of DNA?

Nucleotides

43

What are the three components of a nucleotide?

Sugar, phosphate, and 1/4 bases

44

What is the sugar found in DNA?

Deoxyribose

45

What are the four bases found in DNA?

AGTC

46

What is the name of the bond found between the bases?

Hydrogen bases

47

If the DNA strand is antiparallel, what does that mean?

They run side by side but in opposite directions

48

What is the difference between purines and pyrimidines?

Purines=2 strands, Pyrimidines=1 strand

49

What is Chargaff's rule?

A=T, C=G — Double Helix

50

What is a phospholipid bilayer?

Cell wall

51

What is a codon?

Triplet nucleotide found in the nucleus

52

What is an enzyme?

It is a substance used by a living organism that acts as a catalyst

53

Does an enzyme work in a biochemical reaction or are enzymes specific?

YES! They are very specific

54

What is a catalyst?

Speeds up a reaction

55

What do enzymes do?

Unzips, breaks hydrogen bonds

56

What is the role of DNA?

Store, copy, transmit

57

What is the shape of DNA?

Double helix

58

What type of bonds hold the paired DNA molecule?

Hydrogen bonds

59

Are hydrogen bonds weak?

Yes

60

How does the nucleotide sequence in one chain of DNA compare with the other chain of DNA?

Amino acids always compliment each other

61

What does DNA need to be able to make copies of itself?

Need a copy of DNA to know how to be a cell

62

What enzymes help separate the two strands of nucleotides of DNA?

Helicase

63

What kind of bonds do helicase break?

Hydrogen

64

What is the function of DNA polymerase?

Make DNA from nucleotides

65

Why does DNA replication take place at many places on the molecule simultaneously?

The DNA is so long that it has to be done at the same time

66

What has deoxyribose sugar?

DNA

67

What has a double helix?

DNA

68

What contains thymine?

DNA

69

What has ribose sugar?

RNA

70

What is only single stranded?

RNA

71

What contains uracil?

RNA

72

What does a phospholipid bilayer do?

Protects, structures, and allows things to go in and out

73

What is the monomer of DNA?

Nucleotides

74

What organelle in the cell makes protein fibers?

Ribosomes

75

What does the term diffusion mean?

The dispersion of molecules

76

What contains low-high concentration?

Active

77

What requires energy?

Active

78

What requires a semi-permeable membrane?

Active

79

What contains high-low concentration?

Passive

80

What requires no energy?

Passive

81

What requires no semi-permeable membrane?

Passive

82

What does the term active mean?

Needs energy

83

What does the term passive mean?

No energy

84

What are the steps/orders from transcription to translation to proteins?

DNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, amino acids

85

Where does diffusion occur?

High-low concentration, all mediums, any distance/speed

86

What do ribosomes do in a cell?

Help synthesize proteins

87

What happens in osmosis?

happens slowly, semi-permeable membrane,

88

What happens if you drop a carrot in 50% salt solution?

It would shrink depending on the percent salt solution; high-low concentration; osmosis

89

What is active transport?

Low-high concentration

90

What does molarity concentration mean?

Percent of the concentration of the solution

91

What does rRNA make?

protein

92

What does salt do to ice?

Salt lowers the freezing point

93

What proofreads the code?

DNA polymerase

94

What happens if a DNA is missing?

It should stop coding, but it may not