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Flashcards in Unit Three Deck (184):
1

What is the structure of a nerve/neurone cell

Long it to carry impulses for long distances

2

What is the function of a nerve/neurone cell

Has connections at each end to link with other nerve cells
Can conduct electrical impulses

3

The structure of a red blood cell


Has a biconcave structure to increase surface area to carry more oxygen

4

What is the function of a red blood cell

Has no nucleus so it has a greater surface area to carry more oxygen
Is small and flexible to fit in Capillaries

5

Structure of a sperm cell

Has a tale to swim to the egg
Has a streamlined shape to swim easily

6

Function of the sperm cell

Has digestive enzymes to help them penetrate the egg
Has many mitochondria to provide ATP for Locemotion

7

The structure of a root hair cell

Has a finger like projection to increase surface area to absorb more water

8

Function of the root hair cell

Has no chloroplasts as it is not exposed to light

9

Function of the leaf/palisade Cell

Has many chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis

10

Structure and function of a ciliated cell known as paracium

Has tiny hairs cilia to allow it to move about in fluid

11

Which cells are specialised

Nerve/neurone cell
Red blood cell
Sperm cells
Root hair cell
Leaf/palisade cell
Ciliated cell Paracium

12

What is the function of unspecialised cells

Are able to divide to self renew replaced themselves

13

What are stem cells involved in

Growth and repair
Can be obtained from the early embryo

14

What are unspecialised cells

Stem cells
Embryonic stem cells
Tissue stem cells

15

What is the function of embryonic stem cells

Are capable of developing into all types of cell found in the body

16

What is the function of tissue stem cells

Can be found in the body throughout life such as in the bone marrow blood and skin
Can develop into only a limited type of cell

17

What are our sense organs

Skin temp pressure
Eyes light
Tastebuds chemicals
Ears smell
Ears sound

18

What does the specialisation of cells lead to

The formation of a variety of cells tissues and organs

19

What are multicellular organisms

Have more than one cell type and are made up of tissues and organs

20

What is the function of organs

To perform systems

21

Explain the hierarchy

Cells tissues organs systems

22

What does the central nervous system include

The brain and spinal chord

23

Where is the central nervous system connected

To all other parts of the body by nerves which can lead to and from all organ systems

24

What does the central nervous system insure

That all cells work together as a coordinated whole cells do not work independently of each other

25

What has overall control of the central nervous system

The brain

26

What do the sense organs do

Received information and send it to the central nervous system

27

Explain the flow of information

Sensor then you dance carry the information from the receptor to the central nervous system as an impulse electrical signal
The impulse then get past to nerves in the central nervous system called interneurons
The impulse off and get past to nerves called motoneurons
The impulse then me get past two and travel through nerves called motoneurons. Which end up in a muscle or gland known as the affecters
The muscle may contract are the gland me release a hormone this would be called a response

28

Explain a response

Can be rapid muscle contraction or slow hormone released from a gland

29

What is a reflex action

Fast
Automatic
Protective to the body

30

Why does a reflex action happen

They happen in response to a stimulus

31

Explain the order of a reflex arc

Stimulus
Receptor
Sensory neuron passed information to the central nervous system
Interneuron operate within the central nervous system
Morton Neuron enable responses at the factors
Effector
Response

32

Why do reflexes happen

Protect us from harm as they do not need conscious thought by the brain and this means that response can be coordinated extremely quickly

33

Function of the Cerebrum

Control of conscious thought memory intelligence personality reasoning and imagination

34

Function of the Cerebellum

Controls muscle coordination and balance

35

Function of the medulla

Controlled heart rate and breathing rate

36

Describe a synapse

Is the gap between two neurons
Neutrons do not touch impulses are transmitted from one you done to the other by chemicals that are released from the end of one
Which then the fuse across the synapse to the beginning of the next

37

What are hormones

Are chemical messengers made from protein released into the bloodstream by Endocrine glands

38

Name the gland which releases hormones

Endocrine

39

Where are hormones made

In the glands

40

Where do you hormones have an affect

Target tissues

41

What do you hormones have

I particular chemical structure and shape

42

What do you hormones act on

Only act on target tissues that have receptor proteins that have a complimentary shape

43

What tissue will be affected by specific hormones

Tissues with the specific receptor proteins will be affected

44

What does adrenaline do

Make your heart beat faster but not your kidneys

45

Description of glucose

A sugar used in respiration as an energy source

46

Description of glycogen

A storage carbohydrate made of many glucose molecules

47

Description of insulin

A hormone chemical messenger that instructs the liver to convert excess glucose into glycogen

48

Description of glucagon

A hormone that instructs your liver to convert glycogen to glucose

49

Description of pancreas

Endocrine gland that produces the hormone insulin and glucagon

50

Description of liver

Oregon that stores glucose as glycogen

51

Describe the control of blood sugar levels

Normal blood sugar level
Increase in blood sugar
Change the tactic by the pancreas
Insulin release increases
Glucose taken in by cells glycogen stores increase
Normal blood sugar level
Glucagon travels to liver and glycogen is converted to glucose and released into the blood
Pancreas increases glucagon released into the blood
Change detected by the pancreas
Decrease in blood sugar

52

What is fertilisation

Fusion of the nuclei of two haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote which produces a foetus

53

What is sexual reproduction

Reproduction that involves the production of sex cells gametes and fertilisation

54

What is the chromosomal complement of human body cells

46 chromosomes 23 pairs

55

What do you normal body cells have

Two matching sets of chromosomes and so they are said to be diploid

56

Definition of haploid

Sex cells gametes have 23 unpaired chromosomes one set

57

What is as a zygote

Fertilised egg cell

58

What is gamete

One set of 23 haploid

59

Function of the ovary

Produces eggs one per month

60

Function of oviduct

Tube that leads to uterus where fertilisation takes place

61

Function of the uterus

Place where embryo develops into a foetus

62

Function of the vagina

Erect penis is inserted here During sexual intercourse

63

Function of the cervix

Muscular opening to the uterus

64

Function of the bladder

Stores urine

65

Function of the urethra

Carries urine from the bladder out of the body

66

Structure of a basic egg cell

Cell membrane
Cytoplasm containing food
Nucleus
Mitochondria

67

What is the male sex organ in plants

Anther

68

In the plants where are the male gametes

Pollen grains

69

In the plants where is the site of Pollen production

The anthers

70

Where is the female sex organ in plants

Ovary

71

Where is the site of egg production in plants

The ovary

72

Where are the female gametes in plants

Ovules

73

Explain the anther during plant reproduction

Male sex organs and plants
Sight of pollen production
Pollen grains contain mail gametes

74

Explain the plant reproduction of the ovary

Female sex organs and plants
Sight of egg production
Ovaries contain the ovules female gametes

75

Explain the sexual reproduction in plants

Reproduction that involves the production of sex cells gametes and fertilisation
Fertilisation is the fusion of the nuclei of two haploid gametes

76

Explain the function of the bladder

Stores urine

77

Explain the function of the testes

Produce sperm

78

Explain the function of the urethra

Carries urine/semen out of the penis

79

Explain the function of the penis

Becomes erect during intercourse

80

Explain the function of the sperm duct

Carries sperm from testes to urethra

81

Explain the function of the prostate gland

Releases prostate fluid which is a component of semen

82

Explain the function of the sex gland

Produces fluid which mixes with sperm to produce semen

83

Explain the function of the scrotum

Contains the testes outside the core of the body to keep testes cool enough for sperm production

84

What are the plant organs

Flour
Leaf
Stem
Roots

85

What is the function of the waxy cuticle

A waterproof layer that reduces water loss

86

What is the function of the upper epidermis

A layer that allows light to pass through

87

What is the function of palisade Mesophyll

A layer which contains tightly packed green cells that have plenty of chloroplasts for maximum photosynthesis

88

What is the function of spongy Mesophyll

Green cells with lots of air spaces in between for diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide

89

What is the function of the lower epidermis

Layer that contains guard cells and a protective barrier

90

What is the function of stomata/singular stoma

Pores in the lower epidermis that can be opened and closed by guard cells to allow gases and water to enter and leave the leaf

91

What is the function of the leaf vein

Carries water in the xylem and sugar in the phloem to the leaf cells

92

How many transport systems do plants have

Two

93

What is the function of the xylem

To transport the water from the roots to the leaves for photosynthesis and to transport dissolved materials to all cells

94

What is the function of the phloem

To transport sugar made in the leaves during all cells During photosynthesis including roots for transpiration

95

Describe the transport of water in a plant

From soil to xylem
Water and dissolved minerals enter the root cells by osmosis
The root hairs on the surface of the root provide a large surface area for absorption
Osmosis causes the water to move from cell to cell until it reaches the xylem vessels

96

Describe the structure of xylem

Xylem cells are lignified to provide support and withstand pressure changes as water moves through the plants from Root hair cells to the leaves
Are hollow to make it easier for water to move through the xylem

97

Describe transpiration

The process of water moving through a plant from the roots to the leaves through xylem vessels and then evaporated through the stomata to the outside environment
Constant stream

98

Describe the sequence of transport of water

Water moves from the soil into root hair cells which have a finger like projects in to increase the surface area for maximum absorption of water and minerals
Water moves by osmosis through the cortex cells in roots to the xylem vessels
Water flows up the xylem vessels through the stem and some moves sideways to cells in the stem by osmosis
Water reaches the leaf vein and leaves this Xylem and moves through cells such a spongy Mesophyll cells and palisade mesophyll cells by osmosis
Water then evaporates from Mesophyll cells into the air spaces and leaves the leaf by diffusing through the stomata

99

Stem cut underwater and end of stem rubber tubing and capillary tubing all connected underwater

To prevent air entering xylem and forming airlocks

100

Tightly fitted rubber tubing used

To prevent leakage of water and ensure that the system is airtight

101

Time allowed for the plant to equilibrate between different environmental conditions

Insurers rate of movement of bubble is governed by the factor being investigated and not the previous one

102

Repeat measurement of rate of movement of bubble taking for each condition and average calculated

To obtain a more reliable results for each condition

103

All factors kept equal except for one change in environmental conditions

To ensure that the experiment is valid by only altered in one of variable factor at the time

104

What is transpiration rate affected bye

Temperature
Light intensity
Humidity in the surrounding area
Windspeed
Availability of soil water
Surface area of leaf

105

What is the function of phloem

Flowing tissue carry sugar up and down the plant from roots to leaves and vice versa
Phloem cells said tubes are living tissue and are composed of sieve plates and companion cells
The cytoplasm in phloem cell is continuing from cell to cell through holes in sieve plates
Allows sugar to be transported from cell to cell
Phloem cells have no nucleus and are controlled by a companion cell which has a nucleus

106

Function plasma

Straw coloured liquid that transports carbon dioxide and nutrients such as glucose and amino acid's

107

Function red blood cells

Carry oxygen to respiring tissues

108

What is the function of white blood cells

Are involved in fighting infection

109

What chemical do red blood cells contain and whereabout

Contain a chemical called haemoglobin in their cytoplasm

110

What does oxygen and haemoglobin have in common

Oxygen combines with haemoglobin in the red blood cells to form oxyhaemoglobin and is transported to cells

111

What is the equation for oxygen being made with haemoglobin

Oxygen plus haemoglobin equals Oxy haemoglobin

112

Describe what white blood cells do

Are part of the immune system and are involved in destroying pathogens

113

What is a pathogen

Any disease-causing microbes

114

What is a microbe

Bacteria viruses and fundi
Not all microbes cause disease any that do are called pathogens

115

What are the two main types of white blood cells

Lymphocytes
Phagocytes

116

Describe phagocytes

Carry out phagocytosis by engulfing and digesting pathogens

117

What is phagocytosis

Is non-specific and will target many invading microbes

118

What are the stages of phagocytosis

This cell membrane of the phagocyte surrounds the bacterium
The bacterium is engulfed by the phagocyte
Digestive enzymes are added
The enzymes digestive bacterium

119

Describe lymphocytes

Summer produce proteins called antibodies which destroy pathogens which is a disease causing make up
Antibody is specific to a particular pathogen
The body has thousands of different lymphocytes that are specific to thousands of different pathogens

120

Describe the stages of lymphocytes

The presence of bacteria is the tech did buy a lymphocyte
The lymphocyte divide rapidly to produce many cells
The lymphocytes produces antibodies
The antibodies cause the bacteria to be destroyed

121

What does the circular Tory system include

Blood blood vessels heart and the lungs

122

How many circular Tory system is do we have

We have a double circular Tory system

123

Why do we have a double circular Tory system

As the heart pumps blood to the body and the lungs at the same time

124

What is the function of the circular Tory system

Dissolved food and oxygen needed for respiration or carried around the body by this

125

Where are nutrients from food absorbed

Nutrients from food are absorbed into the villi in the small intestine

126

What does each Villus include

A lacteal

127

Why does it Villus contain a lacteal

To absorb fatty acids and glycerol from digestion of fats

128

What does eat Villus contain

And network of capillaries

129

Why does it Villus contain a network of capillaries

To absorb glucose and amino acids from digestion

130

Why are there so many villi

There are millions of villi which increases the surface area for absorption of nutrients from the small intestine into the blood

131

What is the bodies digestive system

Alimentary canal

132

What happens when we eat food

The food we eat is insoluble these insoluble pieces are passed along the digested system which consists of a muscular tube they got broken down to soluble molecules by digestive enzymes

133

How thick is each capillary surrounding the alveoli and why

One cell thick to ensure rapid diffusion of gases

134

What are the alveoli surrounded bye

Dense capillare networks to ensure efficient diffusion of gases

135

How thick are the alveoli and why are they this thick

One cell thick to ensure rapid diffusion of gases to and from the blood capillary

136

What do the alveoli have

Large numbers of alveoli provides a large surface area for gas exchange
Alveoli have a layer of moisture to allow gases to dissolve the rapid diffusion to the blood

137

How many alveoli are in the lungs

Millions of alveoli are in the lungs

138

What happened at the alveoli

Gases are absorbed and exchanged through the alveoli

139

What are alveoli and whereabouts are they

We are at the end of bronchioles and our microscopic air sacks

140

Explain gas exchange at the alveoli

Lunch or a gas exchange organs oxygen is absorbed into the blood Lollies and are exchanged for a carbon day outside which is removed from the blood
The gases are absorbed and exchange through the alveoli alveoli are microscopic air sacs at the end of bronchials
There are millions of alveoli in the lungs

141

Explain the circular Tory system

Insures that blood low in oxygen is brought to the lungs to become high in oxygen and also insures that this blood high and oxygen is the liver to all body cells and tissues for respiration
Pumps deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs and oxygenated blood from the heart to the body
Each time the heartbeat blood is pumped to the lungs and the body at the exact same time

142

What is the heart

Is a muscular pump which has four chambers

143

What is inside the heart

There are two Axya at the top chambers of the heart the right atrium and the left atrium and to ventricles which are bottom chambers of the heart the right ventricle and left ventricle of the heart has four valves which prevent the back flow of blood blood flows in One Direction only

144

Why does the heart need blood to

The heart is full of blood but also need its own supply so that the muscle can keep pumping

145

What are the arteries on the outside of the heart and what are their function

They are known as can't I arteries carry a blood supply to the heart muscle of oxygenated blood to the heart muscle cells the D oxygenated blood is then carried away from the south outer blood vessels and back to the heart

146

What is the function of the coronale blood vessels

Provide blood from the heart muscle to supply it with oxygen and glucose but respiration the branch of the aorta and carry oxygenated blood to the heart muscle they carry the D oxygenated blood away and connected to the Vena cava

147

Describe the pathway of blood through the heart lungs and body

The Benicar there is given deoxygenated blood in the body cells and tissues the van or car their contracts the valve or pins and forces the deoxygenated blood to go into the right atrium the valval close the right ATM then contracts the valval open and the deoxygenated blood will be forced to go on the right ventricle the valve will enclose the right ventricle will then contract the valve are open and the deoxygenated blood going to the pulmonary artery The pulmonary artery will then take the deoxygenated blood out of the heart as the valve are open and force the blood to come out of the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery and the pulmonary artery do you oxygenated blood to the lungs lungs will then make the deoxygenated blood oxygenated that developing for the long haul not even to force oxygenated blood into the pulmonary vein the pulmonary vein with a contract open and the oxygenated blood will be forced to going to the leftto go into the left atrium the bar will close the left atrium a contract with the barber open the oxygenated blood will be forced to go onto the left ventricle the valve will close the left ventricle with a contract the Volvo open and the blood will be forced to go to the ear water the

148

What separates the two different types of blood

The septum

149

What are the different types of blood Bessel

Artery vein capitalise

150

Describe the structure of the artery

Have a thicker muscular walls to withstand high pressure
Have a narrower central channel

151

Describe. The function of the artery

Carries blood away from the heart at high-pressure causing a pulse

152

Where do you artery transport the blood

Away from the heart

153

Where do veins carry the blood

Veins carry blood inside the heart

154

What is the structure of the vein

Contain valves to prevent back flow of blood and to return blood to the heart and also have a thinner muscular wall and the wider central channel

155

What is the function of the vein

Carries blood towards the heart at a lower pressure

156

What are capillare is

Capillaries are the tiny blood vessels that carry blood supply to and from the body cells

157

What do you capillaries do

Capillaries link I had today to been the only blood vessel or substances can be exchanged between the blood and body cells

158

Why do capillaries have a very thin walls which are one cell thick

Allows sufficient diffusion of materials in and out of blood

159

Why do capillaries are found to have a dance networks around the organs

Provides a large surface area for a sufficient exchange of materials between cells and blood

160

Describe some variety of variation

I colour
Hair colour
Height and weight
Dry and wet earwax in human
Leaf size in plants

161

What leads to variation in the zygote

When are genes in the chromosomes of sperm/pollen combine it with genes in a egg/ ovule this leads to variation is a good

162

Why are the members of the same species who are very similar to one another not identical

As variation differences exist among the members of a species

163

Describe discrete variation

Measurements fall into distinct groups is caused by the inheritance/ controlled by a single gene

164

Describe continuous variation

Are caused by the inheritance of many genes such as height in humans and leaflet and plants they can be measured and weighed

165

What is meant by Polygenic inheritance

Many genes

166

What chart is best to use very discrete variation

Bar chart

167

What chart is best to use for continuous variation

Histogram

168

The predicted ratio was 3 to 1 explain why the predicted ratio was different to the actual ratio

Fertilisation is completely random

169

Most features of an individual phenotype are

Polygenic and show continuos variation

170

State of the term used to describe the genotype of both parents

Heterozygous

171

An individual who possesses two different alleles for a particular gene will display a

Dominant phenotype

172

What is the term and by genetic information

Hair colour I colour and many other characteristics are determined by this information passed on from one generation to the next

173

What is an allele

Can be dominant or recessive and dominant vitamin a capital letter and it recessive written in a lowercase letter

174

What is a recessive allele

Dominant allele masks the recessive allelecan't see the characteristic

175

What is a dominant allele

Will always be expressed you can see the characteristic

176

For every gene how many alleles will there be

2

177

For each gene how many alleles do you receive from each parent

Two alleles of each gene one from each parent

178

What are alleles

The jeans are from each parent

179

What do you chromosomes contain

Jeans

180

What is meant by phenotype

All the physical characteristics of an organism are known collectively as phenotype physically what you look like

181

What is meant by genotype

The complete set of jeans possessed by an organism what alleles have you got

182

What is meant by homozygous

This same alleles

183

What is meant by heterozygous

Different alleles

184

What is meant by True or pure breeding

Two alleles which are exactly the same