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Flashcards in Unit Two Deck (33):
1

What is a hydrocarbon?

A compound made of only hydrogen and carbon

2

What is the homologous series?

A family of compounds with the same general formula and similar chemical properties

3

What does saturated mean?

Contains only single bonds

4

Unsaturated

Contains carbon-to-carbon double (or triple) bonds

5

What happens in an addition reaction?

Double bond opening up and another molecule joining

6

What is the test for instauration?

Bromine is rapidly decolourised

7

What is the formula for alkanes?

C n H 2 n+2

8

What is the formula for alkenes?

C n H 2 n

9

What are the names for the first eight alkanes?

Methane
Ethane
Propane
Butane
Pentane
Hexane
Heptane
Octane

10

What is a functional group?

Section of a molecule that makes it react a particular way

11

What is the difference between hydroxide and hydroxyl?

Hydroxide: an ion found in alkalis

Hydroxyl (-OH): group found in alcohol molecules

12

What is the name of this alcohol?

H OH H
| | |
H-C-C-C-H
| | |
H H H

Propan-2-ol

13

What is an exothermic reaction?

Energy is released and temperature increases

14

What is an endothermic reaction?

Energy is taken from surrounds and temperature decreases

15

Define combustion

When a substance combines with oxygen and releases energy

16

Give an example of a combustion reaction

Hydrogen burns in oxygen to form hydrogen oxide

17

What is the result of complete combustion of a hydrocarbon or alcohol?

Carbon dioxide and water

18

How is energy produced by fuel calculated?

Eh=cm🔺T

19

How do you change 75 cubic centimetres into kilograms?

Divide by 1000

20

Alkanes are saturated, what does this mean?

They contain C-C single bonds

21

What is the solubility of alkanes?

Insoluble

22

Alkanes contain C-C double bonds, what is this called?

Unsaturated

23

How soluble are alkenes?

Insoluble

24

How does the bromine solution test distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons?

Unsaturated decolourises quickly
Saturated decolourises very slowly

25

Which hydrocarbon do the cycloalkanes share a general formula with?

Alkenes

26

How can you tell alkenes and cycloalkenes apart?

Cycloalkanes are saturated so they will decolourise bromine solution a lot slower than alkenes

27

In a homologous series what is an important pattern?

Increase in melting point and boiling point as chain length increases

28

What is an isomer?

Two molecules with the same molecular formula but a different structural formula

29

What is the functional group in alcohols?

Hydroxyl -OH

30

What is the general formula for alcohols?

CnH2n+1OH

31

How soluble are alcohols?

Small alcohols are soluble in water then the solubility decreases as the chain length increases

32

Carboxyl COOH is the functional group for?

Carboxylic acids

33

What is the general formula for carboxylic acids?

CnH2n+1COOH