Flashcards in Unit Two Deck (33):
What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound made of only hydrogen and carbon
What is the homologous series?
A family of compounds with the same general formula and similar chemical properties
What does saturated mean?
Contains only single bonds
Contains carbon-to-carbon double (or triple) bonds
What happens in an addition reaction?
Double bond opening up and another molecule joining
What is the test for instauration?
Bromine is rapidly decolourised
What is the formula for alkanes?
C n H 2 n+2
What is the formula for alkenes?
C n H 2 n
What are the names for the first eight alkanes?
What is a functional group?
Section of a molecule that makes it react a particular way
What is the difference between hydroxide and hydroxyl?
Hydroxide: an ion found in alkalis
Hydroxyl (-OH): group found in alcohol molecules
What is the name of this alcohol?
H OH H
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H H H
What is an exothermic reaction?
Energy is released and temperature increases
What is an endothermic reaction?
Energy is taken from surrounds and temperature decreases
When a substance combines with oxygen and releases energy
Give an example of a combustion reaction
Hydrogen burns in oxygen to form hydrogen oxide
What is the result of complete combustion of a hydrocarbon or alcohol?
Carbon dioxide and water
How is energy produced by fuel calculated?
How do you change 75 cubic centimetres into kilograms?
Divide by 1000
Alkanes are saturated, what does this mean?
They contain C-C single bonds
What is the solubility of alkanes?
Alkanes contain C-C double bonds, what is this called?
How soluble are alkenes?
How does the bromine solution test distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons?
Unsaturated decolourises quickly
Saturated decolourises very slowly
Which hydrocarbon do the cycloalkanes share a general formula with?
How can you tell alkenes and cycloalkenes apart?
Cycloalkanes are saturated so they will decolourise bromine solution a lot slower than alkenes
In a homologous series what is an important pattern?
Increase in melting point and boiling point as chain length increases
What is an isomer?
Two molecules with the same molecular formula but a different structural formula
What is the functional group in alcohols?
What is the general formula for alcohols?
How soluble are alcohols?
Small alcohols are soluble in water then the solubility decreases as the chain length increases
Carboxyl COOH is the functional group for?