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Memory

The persistence of learning overtime through the encoding storage and retrieval of information

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Akinston and Shiffrin

explained memory and three steps. Sensory memory. Short-term memory. Long-term memory.

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Encoding

The processing of information into the memory system

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Storage

The process of retaining encoded information overtime

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Retrieval

The process of getting information out of memory storage

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Parallel processing

The processing of many aspects of the problem at once (NOT step by step)

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Sensory memory

The immediate and brief recording of sensory information

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Short-term memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly

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Long-term memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

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Working memory

A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information

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Explicit memory

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare

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Effortful processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

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Automatic processing

Unconscious encoding of identical information such as space, time, and frequency, and well learned information, such as word meanings

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Implicit memory

Retention independent of conscious recollection

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Iconic memory

Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli

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Echoic memory

Momentary memory of auditory stimuli

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George Miller

(1956) composed of that short-term memory can retain about seven information bits such as a phone number

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Chungking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units

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Mnemonics

Memory aids

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Spacing effect

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention

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Ebbinghaus

Came up with spacing effect and testing affect

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Shallow processing

Encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words

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Deep processing

Encoding semantically, based on the meaning of words

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Hippocampus

In neutral center located in the limbic system, helps process explicit memories for storage

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Flashbulb memory

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

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Recall

A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier

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Recognition

A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned

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Relearning

A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

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Priming

The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

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Mood-congruent memory

The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

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serial position effect

Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

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Anterograde amnesia

And inability to form new memories

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Retrograde amnesia

And an inability to retrieve information from one's past

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Proactive interference

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

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Retroactive interference

The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

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Repression

In psychoanalytic theory, the base defense mechanism. That banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

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Miss information effect

Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

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Source amnesia

Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experiences, heard about Colorado about, or imagined

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Algorithm

A logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

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Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently

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Insight

A sudden realization of a problems solution

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Confirmation bias

A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

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Mental set

A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often away that has been successful in the past

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Intuition

Effortless automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

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Representativeness heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes. May lead us to ignore other relevant information

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Availability heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

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Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct

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Belief perseverance

Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the bias on which they were formed has been discredited

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Framing

Dewayne issue is post. How an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments

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Language

Or spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combined them to communicate meaning

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Phoneme

In a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

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Morpheme

In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning

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Grammar

In the language, a system of rules to Naples us to communicate with and understand others

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Babbling stage

Beginning at about four months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

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One-word stage

The stage and speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words

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Two words stage

Beginning about age 2, the stage and speech development during which a child speaks mostly into word statements

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Telegraphic speech

Early speech stage in which a child uses mostly nouns and verbs

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Aphasia

Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage

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Broca's area

Controls language expression

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Wernickes area

Controls language reception

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Linguistic determinism

Whorfs apophysis that language determines the way we think