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Flashcards in Unit XI Deck (25):
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Intelligence

Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

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Intelligence test

A method for assessing and individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical sources

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General intelligence

A general intelligence factor that, according to Spearmen and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

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Factor analysis

A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlying a person's total score

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Savant syndrome

A condition in which a person otherwise limited and mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing

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Emotional intelligence

The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

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Mental age

A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; The chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, A child who does as well as theaverage eight-year-old is said to have a mental age of eight

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Stanford-Binet

The widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test

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Intelligence quotient

Defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100, with scores assigned to relative performance above or below average

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Achievement test

A test designed to assess what a person has learned

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Aptitude test

Hey test designed to predict a person's future performance: aptitude is the capacity to learn

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Standardization

Defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretest a group

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Normal curve

The symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and physiological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores line near the extremes

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Reliability

The extent to which a test yields constant results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting

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Validity

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

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Content validity

The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

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Predictive validity

The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict: it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior

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Cohort

A group of people from a given time period

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Crystallized intelligence

Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills

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Fluid intelligence

Our ability to reason speedily and abstractly, tends to decrease during late adulthood

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Intellectual disability

A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by and intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life

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Down syndrome

A condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21

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Heritability

The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied

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Stereotype threat

A self confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype

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