Units 4 & 5 Flashcards Preview

Vocabulary (Grade 11) > Units 4 & 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Units 4 & 5 Deck (40):
1

atrophy

(n.) the wasting away of a body organ or tissue; any progressive decline or failure; (v.) to waste away
Synonyms: (n.) degeneration, deterioration; (v.) wither
Antonyms: (n.) growth, development; (v.) mature, develop

2

bastion

(n.) a fortified place, stronghold
Synonyms: citadel, rampart, bulwark, parapet

3

concord

(n.) a state of agreement, harmony, unanimity; a treaty, pact, covenant
Antonyms: disagreement, strife, discord

4

consummate

(adj.) complete or perfect in the highest degree; (v.) to bring to a state of completion or perfection
Synonyms: (adj.) masterful; (v.) clinch, conclude
Antonyms: (v.) launch, initiate, begin, kick off

5

disarray

(n.) disorder, confusion; (v.) to throw into disorder
Synonyms: (n.) disorganization; (v.) dishevel, mess up
Antonyms: (n.) organization, order, tidiness

6

exigency

(n., often pl.) urgency, pressure; urgent demand, pressing need; an emergency
Synonyms: requirement, crisis

7

flotsam

(n.) floating debris; homeless, impoverished people
Synonyms: floating wreckage

8

frenetic

(adj.) frenzied, highly agitated
Synonyms: frantic, overwrought
Antonyms: calm, controlled, relaxed, leisurely

9

glean

(v.) to gather bit by bit; to gather small quantities of grain left in a field by the reapers
Synonyms: collect, cull, pick up

10

grouse

(n.) a type of game bird; a complaint; (v.) to complain, grumble
Synonyms: (v.) gripe, kvetch, bellyache

11

incarcerate

(v.) to imprison, confine, jail
Synonyms: intern, immure
Antonyms: liberate, release, free

12

incumbent

(adj.) obligatory, required; (n.) one who holds a specific office at the time spoken
Synonyms: (adj.) mandatory, necessary
Antonyms: (adj.) optional, unnecessary

13

jocular

(adj.) humorous, jesting, jolly, joking
Synonyms: waggish, facetious, droll, witty
Antonyms: humorless, solemn, grave, earnest, grim

14

ludicrous

(adj.) ridiculous, laughable, absurd
Synonyms: risible, preposterous
Antonyms: heartrending, poignant, pathetic

15

mordant

(adj.) biting or caustic in thought, manner, or style; sharply or bitterly harsh
Synonyms: acrimonious, acidulous, sardonic, scathing
Antonyms: bland, mild, gentle, soothing

16

nettle

(n.) a prickly or stinging plant; (v.) to arouse displeasure, impatience, or anger; to vex or irritate severely
Synonyms: (v.) peeve, annoy, incense, gall, irk
Antonyms: (v.) please, delight, soothe, pacify

17

pecuniary

(adj.) consisting of or measured in money; of or related to money
Synonyms: monetary, financial

18

pusillanimous

(adj.) contemptibly cowardly or mean-spirited
Synonyms: craven, lily-livered
Antonyms: stouthearted, courageous, daring

19

recumbent

(adj.) in a reclining position, lying down, in the posture of one sleeping or resting
Synonyms: prone, prostrate, supine, inactive
Antonyms: erect, upright, energetic, dynamic

20

stratagem

(n.) a scheme to outwit or deceive an opponent or to gain an end
Synonyms: ruse, trick, ploy, subterfuge

21

acuity

(n.) sharpness (particularly of the mind or senses)
Synonyms: keenness, acuteness
Antonyms: dullness, obtuseness

22

delineate

(v.) to portray, sketch, or describe in accurate and vivid detail; to represent pictorially
Synonyms: depict, picture, render

23

depraved

(adj.) marked by evil and corruption; devoid of moral principle
Synonyms: perverted, degenerate, vicious, corrupt
Antonyms: moral, virtuous, upright, uncorrupted

24

enervate

(v.) to weaken or lessen the mental, moral, or physical vigor of; enfeeble, hamstring
Synonyms: impair, cripple, paralyze
Antonyms: invigorate, strengthen, buttress

25

esoteric

(adj.) intended for or understood by only a select few, private secret
Synonyms: occult, cryptic, arcane, recondite
Antonyms: accessible, comprehensible, intelligible

26

fecund

(adj.) fruitful in offspring or vegetation; intellectually productive
Synonyms: fertile, teeming, prolific
Antonyms: infertile, barren, unproductive

27

fiat

(n.) an arbitrary order or decree; a command or act of will or consciousness
Synonyms: edict, dictum, ukase

28

figment

(n.) a fabrication of the mind; an arbitrary notion
Synonyms: creation, invention, fancy

29

garner

(v.) to acquire as the result of effort; to gather and store away, as for future use
Synonyms: collect, accumulate, accrue
Antonyms: scatter, squander, waste, dissipate

30

hallow

(v.)to set apart as holy or sacred, sanctify, consecrate; to honor greatly, revere
Synonyms: venerate, bless
Antonyms: desecrate, defile, profane

31

idiosyncrasy

(n.) a peculiarity that serves to distinguish or identify
Synonyms: eccentricity, quirk, mannerism

32

ignominy

(n.) shame and disgrace
Synonyms: dishonor, humiliation, disrepute, odium
Antonyms: honor, glory, acclaim

33

mundane

(adj.) earthly, worldly, relating to practical and material affairs; concerned with what is ordinary
Synonyms: prosaic, humdrum, routine, sublunary
Antonyms: heavenly, unworldly, spiritual, transcendental

34

nuance

(n.) a subtle or slight variation (as in color, meaning, quality), delicate gradation or shade of difference
Synonyms: shade, nicety, refinement

35

overweening

(adj.) conceited, presumptuous; excessive, immoderate
Synonyms: arrogant, unbridled, inflated
Antonyms: restrained, understated, modest, meek

36

penchant

(n.) a strong attraction or inclination
Synonyms: proclivity, propensity, predilection
Antonyms: disinclination, aversion

37

reputed

(adj.) according to reputation or popular belief
Synonyms: putative, reputable, supposed
Antonyms: proven, corroborated, authenticated

38

sophistry

(n.) reasoning that seems plausible but is actually unsound; a fallacy
Synonym: specious reasoning

39

sumptuous

(adj.) costly, rich, magnificent
Synonyms: lavish, munificent, opulent, splendid
Antonyms: skimpy, meager, stingy, niggardly, spartan

40

ubiquitous

(adj.) present or existing everywhere
Synonyms: omnipresent, pervasive, universal
Antonyms: restricted, limited, rare, scarce