Univ of Arizona Mock Exam C Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Univ of Arizona Mock Exam C Deck (68):
1

Under Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies (CFR 21, Part 58), the Quality Assurance Unit must be responsible for which of the following activities?

 

a. Maintain copies of all relevant IACUC protocols
b. Inspect each nonclinical laboratory study semiannually
c.   Report, at regular intervals, to the FDA regarding the integrity of the study
d. Maintain a copy of the master schedule sheet of all nonclinical laboratory studies conducted at the testing facility
 

d. Maintain a copy of the master schedule sheet of all nonclinical laboratory studies conducted at the testing facility.

Must maintain copies of all protocols.

Must inspect laboratories as often as necessary.

Must periodically report to the management and study director.

Reference: 21 CFR Part 58 - Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies, Subpart B – Organization and Personnel, §58.35 (b)(1-7) Quality assurance unit
Domain 5

2

Which of the following statements best describes the minimum eligibility requirement needed to qualify for the LATG exam? 

 

a. High school diploma/GED or higher and 5 years of laboratory animal work experience.
b. An associate’s degree and 0.5 years laboratory animal work experience.
c. An associate’s degree and 3 years laboratory animal work experience.
d. A bachelor’s degree and 1 year laboratory animal work experience.
 

a. High school diploma/GED or higher and 5 years of laboratory animal work experience.

Reference: http://www.aalas.org/pdf/Tech_Cert_Handbook.pdf (p.3)
Domain 6

3

Salivary gland from an asymptomatic mouse.  Diagnosis?

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Mouse Cytomegalovirus (MCMV)

  • Betaherpesvirus
  • Asymptomatic in immunocompetent
  • Wild mice are reservoir
  • Persistence is central feature, especially salivary gland and pancreas
  • Excrete virus in saliva, urine, tears for many months
  • Also can infect prostate, testicle, pancreas
  • Vertical infection does not occur
  • Maternal antibody is protective
  • Lesions usually limited to occasional megalocytosis with eosinophilic intranuclear and/or intracytoplasmic inclusions associated with lymphoplasmacytic interstitial inflammation
  • Detection of enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions, especially in salivary glands, are diagnostic if present

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Biology and Diseases of Mice, p. 60.
2) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 1 – Mouse, pp. 19-20.
3) Fox JG, Barthold SW, Davisson MT, Newcomer CE, Quimby FW, Smith AL, eds.  2007.  The Mouse in Biomedical Research, 2nd edition, Volume 2 – Diseases.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 1 – Murine Cytomegalovirus and Other Herpesviruses, p. 12.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

4

This animal is a well established model for what disease?

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Sigmodon hispidus (Cotton rat)

Paramyxovirus respiratory tract infection:

  • Respiratory syncytial virus - leading cause of respiratory tract infections in human infants
  • Parainfluenza 3 - second leading cause of pediatric respiratory disease

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 7 – Biology and Diseases of Other Rodents, p. 270.
Domain 3; Tertiary Species – Other Rodents

5

When testing a given experimental hypothesis, a Type-I (or alpha) statistical error would lead to what action?

Reject the null hypothesis when it is, in fact, true

Beta (type II error):  failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false

1) Festing MFW, Overend P, Gaines Das R, Cortina Borja M and Berdoy M. 2002.  The Design of Animal Experiments. Laboratory Animal Handbooks No.14, RSM Press, London, UK. Chapter 6 – Presenting and Interpreting Results and Making Decisions, pp. 92-93.
2) Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Chapter 18 – Experimental Modeling and Research Methodology, p. 617.
Domain 3

6

Which of the following disinfectants is capable of inactivating prions?

 

a.   2% gluteraldehyde
b.   0.35% peracetic acid
c.   70% isopropyl alchohol
d.   2% phenolic acid
e.   1 N NaOH
 

e. 1 N NaOH

1)  U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Institutes of Health. 2007. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. 5th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. Section VIII-H – Prion Diseases, pp. 284-290. (http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/bmbl5toc.htm)
2)  http://www.dehs.umn.edu/bio_pracprin_prions_sp.htm
Domain 4

7

What is the maximum number that can be transported in a primary enclosure according to the Animal Welfare Act Regulations?

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50

1) 9 Code of Federal Regulations Chapter I, Subchapter A, Part 3.36. Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters
Domain 5; Secondary Species – Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

8

For commercial air transportation of dogs and cats, what is the maximum number of animals that can be transported in the same primary enclosure?

 

If 6 months old or older: 1

If 2-6 months old and over 20 lbs: 1

If 2-6 months old and less than 20 lbs: 2

If less than 2 months old, weaned, of comparable size OR less than 2 months, not necessarily weaned, and traveling with dam, AND traveling to a research facility:  may all be housed together

AWA Part 3.15, p 55

 

9

For surface transportation or privately owned aircraft, how many dogs or cats can be transported in the same primary enclosure?

 

No more than 4 dogs or cats 2 months old or older

Weaned, less than 2 months, of comparable size OR less than 2 months, littermates, and traveling with dam - may all be housed together

 

10

Bile duct from a ferret that presented with ataxia, tremors, paralysis, and death.  Similar histologic lesions were seen in the trachea, bronchi, and the transitional epithelium of the bladder.  Diagnosis?

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Canine Distemper Virus

Note presence of both intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusions

  • paramyxovirus, genus Morbillivirus
  • related to measles and rinderpest
  • uniformly fatal
  • ferret adapted strain - death in 12-16 days post-infection
  • canine adapted strain - death up to 35 days post-infection
  • cattarrhal phase and CNS phase
  • catarrhal phase 7-10 day PI - anorexia, pyrexia, photosensitivity, serous nasal discharge
  • erythematous pruritic rash from chin to inguinal region
  • hyperkeratosis of foot pads an inconsistent feature
  • secondary bacterial infections result in mucopurulent ocular and nasal discharge, and possibly pneumonia
  • CNS phase may or may not be preceded by catarrhal phase
  • virus shed from conjunctival, nasal, oral exudates, as well as urine, feces, and sloughed skin
  • viremia detectable 2 days post-infection
  • primary site of replication is respiratory and lymphatic systems
  • differential diagnoses include Bordetella and influenza, but influenza does not progress to mucopurulent discharge so quickly

LAM, p 498

11

According to the NIH Office of Recombinant DNA Activities, institutions proposing to work with recombinant DNA are required to establish a committee of no fewer than how many members who have experience and expertise in recombinant DNA technology?

5

  • At least two members must not be affiliated with the institution
  • At least one member with expertise in animal containment principles is required if whole animal experiments are done


1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 24 – Control of Biohazards Associated with the Use of Experimental Animals, pp. 1053-1054.
2) NIH Guidelines For Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules. 2011. Section IV-B-2-a. Membership and Procedures, p. 24 
(http://oba.od.nih.gov/oba/rac/Guidelines/NIH_Guidelines.pdf)
Domain 5

12

What are the primary etiologic agents responsible for approximately 80% of all upper respiratory infections in cats?

Feline herpesvirus and feline calicivirus

  • Chlamydophila, Mycoplasma, reovirus, and Bordetella may also be primary, concurrent, or secondary
  • Chlamydophila and Mycoplasma commonly cause primary conjunctivitis
  • Bordetella implicated as cause of acute bronchitis and pneumonia
  • Conjunctivitis and keratitis common in FHV-1
  • Oral and lingual ulcers common in FCV
  • Up to 80% of cats that recover from FHV-1 become carriers and intermittently shed virus in oronasal and conjunctival secretions for life
  • Following FCV, cats may shed  virus continuously for months to years
  • FHV-1 and FCV persists in environment for 1-2 days and 8-10 days respectively
  • Transplacental infection does not occur

References: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 12 – Domestic Cats as Laboratory Animals, pp.476-478.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Cat (Felis domestica)

13

What assay was developed in the 1980s by developmental biologists and toxicologists to document developmental abnormalities associated with environmental chemicals?

Frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX)

Reference: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 30 – Animal Models in Biomedical Research, p. 1188.
Domain 3

14

Certified and natural ingredient diets should be stored at _____ and purified and chemically defined diets should be stored at ______.

< 21ºC (70ºF); < 4ºC (39ºF)

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 21 - Design and Management of Animal Facilities, p. 916.
2) Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals Academies Press: Washington, D.C. Chapter 3 - Environment, Housing and Management, p. 66.
Domain 4

15

Which bacteria in rats is the causative agent for rat bite and Haverhill fevers in humans?

Streptobacillus moniliformis

  • commensal in wild rats - nasopharynx, middle ear, respiratory tract
  • present in blood, and urine
  • Gram negative pleomorphic bacillus
  • clinical signs in human 3-10 days PI - fever, vomiting, arthralgia, rash, low mortality
  • culture on sheep blood agar or trypticase say agar with 20% horse serum


1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 4 – Biology and Diseases of Rats, p. 139.
2)  Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 2 – Rat, p. 153.
3) Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 11 – Bacterial, Mycoplasmal and Mycotic Infections, pp. 340-341.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

16

An investigator finds this granuloma in a zebrafish that was showing no overt behavioral or physical abnormalities.  Organisms are acid-fast positive, rod shaped bacteria with Gram-positive characteristics.  What is your presumptive diagnosis?

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Mycobacteriosis

Atypical mycobacterial infections of fish are most commonly Mycobacterium marinum, M. fortiutum, or M. chelonae

Definitive diagnosis made by culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) or other selective media and subsequent biochemical analysis.

1) Murray KN et al. 2011. Characterization and management of asymptomatic Mycobacterium infections at the Zebrafish International Resource Center. JAALAS 50(5): 675-679.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 19 – Biology and Management of the Zebrafish, p. 876.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

17

In stereotactic surgical procedures, what do the terms “bregma” and “lambda” refer to?

bregma:  intersection of sagittal and coronal sutures

lambda:  intersection of sagittal and lambdoidal sutures

References: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 23 – Techniques of Experimentation, p. 1030.
Domain 3

18

What is the main reason not to house Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis together?

In X. laevis, the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis causes a subclinical infection whereas this organism can result in high mortality in X. tropicalis

1)  Parker et al.  2002.  Clinical diagnosis and treatment of epidermal chytridiomycosis in African Clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis). Comp Med 52(3):265-268.
2) Green SL. 2010. The Laboratory Xenopus.  CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. Chapter 4 – Veterinary Care, pp. 69-124.
Domain 4; Secondary Species – African Clawed Frog (Xenopus spp.)

19

The device depicted below is an infrared spectrophotometer.  In a laboratory animal facility, what would be one of its primary functions?

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Considered the gold standard for measurement of waste anesthesia gas

1) Fish, R.E., Brown, M. J., Danneman, P.J and Karas, A.Z, eds. 2008 Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Ch 7 – Waste Anesthetic Gas Safety, pp. 183-193.
2) Image and information from: http://www.globalspec.com/FeaturedProducts/Detail/WilksEnterprise/4Gas_Anesthetic_Vapor_Monitor/53312/1.
Domain 4

20

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, any dealer who obtains or acquires a live random source dog or cat from a private or contract pound or shelter, shall hold the dog or cat for a period of at least how many full days?

10 days, not including the day of acquisition or transit time

Reference: Animal Welfare Regulations, CFR Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A, Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart I – Miscellaneous, §2.132(e) (3) Procurement of random source dogs and cats, dealers, (1-1-00 Edition, p. 41)
Domain 5; Primary Species – Dog (Canis familiaris), Secondary Species – Cat (Felis domestica)

21

Which of the following lymphocyte changes in peripheral blood have been observed in Macaca fascicularis due to chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection?

 

a. CD4+ T cell depletion; CD21+ B cell increase
b. CD4+ T cell depletion; CD21+ B cell reduction
c. CD8+ T cell depletion; CD21+ B cell increase
d. CD8+ T cell depletion; CD21+ B cell reduction
 

b. CD4+ T cell depletion; CD21+ B cell reduction

1)   Bennett BT, Abee CR, Henrickson R, eds. 1998. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 1 - Viral Diseases, p. 41.
2) Kling et al. 2011. Alterations in peripheral blood B-cell populations in SHIV89.6P-infected macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Comp Med 61(3):269-277.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Macaques (Macaca spp.)

22

What manipulations are prone to cause cardiac arrhythmias in swine?  What techniques and/or drugs can be employed to prevent and/or treat cardiac arrhythmias?

Fatal cardiac arrhythmias can occur in swine secondary to manipulation of the heart, vagal stimulation following endotracheal intubation, suctioning of the trachea, or surgical manipulation of the pulmoary bronchus.

Bretyllium (no longer on the market)

Amiodarone - 10-12 mg/kg followed by 0.5-3.5 mg/kg/hr

Lidocaine - 2-4 mg/kg bolus followed by 50 mcg/kg/min

If vebtricular fibrillation or cardiac asystole occurs, countershock at 10 joules internal paddles or 200-400 joules external paddles is more effective than chemicals.  Pig skin has high electrical resistance, and minimal settings of external defibrillator are ineffective.

Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 15 - Anesthesia and Analgesia in Swine, p. 424.
2)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 22 – Preanesthesia, Anesthesia, Analgesia and Euthanasia, p. 984.
Domain 2; Primary Species – Pig (Sus scrofa)

23

In a recent study, researchers found that the best time to estimate glomerular filtration rate in conscious rabbits using a single blood sample was 90 min following intravenous injection of which of the following agents?

 

a. Creatinine
b. Iohexol
c. Inulin
d. Desmopressin
 

c. Inulin

Reference: Michigoshi et al. 2011. Using a single blood sample and inulin to estimate glomerular filtration rate in rabbits.  JAALAS 50(5):702- 707.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

24

C58 and AKR mice can develop a paralytic syndrome, age-dependent poliomyelitis (ADPM).  What are the conditions for this condition to develop, and what human disease does it potentially model?

 

ADPM requires suppressed host immunity from old age, immunodeficiency, or chemical immunosuppression.  Also, requires infection with an LDV variant capable of infecting anterior horn neurons, in addition to co-infection with N-ecotropic MuLV, and homozygous at the Fv-1n/n locus.

Potentially models amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

Carlson Scholz, Jodi A.; Garg, Rohit; Compton, Susan R.; Allore, Heather G.; Zeiss, Caroline J.; Uchio, Edward M. Poliomyelitis in MuLV-Infected ICR-SCID Mice after Injection of Basement Membrane Matrix Contaminated with Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus.  Comparative Medicine 61(5): 404-411. 
2)  Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 1 – Mouse, p. 30.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mice

 

25

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its Regulations, if the primary enclosure used to transport a nonhuman primate has ventilation openings on two opposite walls, the openings on each wall must be at least what percent of the total surface area of each wall?

16%

Reference: Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 3 – Standards, Subpart D – Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates, §3.87(c)(1)(i) Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.  (1-1-01 Edition, pp. 87-88).
Domain 5

26

The Animal Care Panel was founded in 1950 and is presently known as what laboratory animal medicine organization?

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 1 – Laboratory Animal Medicine: Historical Perspectives, p. 12.
2) http://www.aalas.org/association/history.aspx
Domain 6

27

The photomicrograph from the lung section of a F344 rat has lesions that are characteristic of what rodent pathogen?

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Pneumocystis carinii

1)   Livingston, Robert S.; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L.; Myles, Matthew H.; Franklin, Craig L.; Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.  Pneumocystis carinii Infection Causes Lung Lesions Historically Attributed to Rat Respiratory Virus.  Comparative Medicine   61(1): 45-59.
2)   Albers TM, Simon MA, Clifford CB.  Histopathology of naturally transmitted "rat respiratory virus": progression of lesions and proposed diagnostic criteria. Vet Pathol. 2009 Sep;46(5):992-9.
Domain 1; Primary Species - Rat

28

A number of young fish in a salmon colony are noted to be whirling or rotating on their long axis while swimming. Which of the following etiological agents is the most likely cause of this behavior? 

 

a.  Iridovirus
b.  Ichthyophthirius multifiliis
c.  Mycobacteria spp.
d.  Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus
e.  Gyrodactylus spp.
 

d. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV)

  • IPNV often isolated from fish showing no clinical signs
  • Acute infection occurs in very young fish of some species
  • Cumulative mortality can approach 100%, especially in salmonids
  • Older fish develop subclinical or inapparent infections
  • Affected fry and fingerlings  swim by rotating on their long axis, or whirling
  • Also, dark, exophthalmia, abdominal distension, mucoid fecal casts, anemia
  • Worldwide distribution
  • Cross-species transmission does occur

Reference: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 20 – Biology and Health of Laboratory Fishes, pp. 899-902, 905-907.
Domain 1; Tertiary Species – Other Fish

29

What best describes parabiosis?

Surgical anastomosis of two animals

Reference: Fox JG, Barthold SW, Davisson MT, Newcomer CE, Quimby FW, Smith AL, eds.  2007.  The Mouse in Biomedical Research, 2nd edition, Volume 3 – Normative Biology, Husbandry, and Models.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 13 – Biomethodology and Surgical Techniques, p. 469.
Domain 3

30

Which of the following is a possible genotype for the mouse pictured?

 

a. a/a; Tyrp1b/Tyrp1b; +/+; Myo5ad/Myo5ad
b. a/a; +/+; +/+; +/+
c. a/a; Tyrp1b/Tyrp1b; Tyrc/Tyrc; +/+
d. +/+; +/+/ +/+; +/+ 
 

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c.  a/a; Tyrp1b/Tyrp1b; Tyrc/Tyrc; +/+

Tyrc/Tyr= Albino - supercedes all other modifier genes

A/A; Tyrp1+/Tryp1+ = Agouti (brownish-grey)

a/a; Tyrp1+/Tyrp1+ = Black non-agouti

A/A; Tyrp1b/Tyrp1b = Brown agouti (cinnamon)

a/a; Tyrp1b/Tyrp1b = Brown non-agouti (chocolate)

Myo5ad/Myo5ad = dilute

p/p = pink-eyed

s/s = Piebald


1) Fox, JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine.  2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 27 – Genetic Monitoring, p. 1123.
2) Fox, RR, Wiltham, BA.  1997.  Handbook on Genetically Standardized JAX Mice.  5th edition.  Jackson Laboratory: Bar Harbor Maine.
Domain 4; Primary species - Mouse (Mus musculus)

31

Guinea pig with no other clinical signs.  Most likely etiology?

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Streptococcus zooepidemicus

  • Commensal
  • Lancefield's group C
  • beta-hemolytic
  • has anti-phagocytic capsule and produces several exotoxins including hyaluronidase,  a protease, and a streptokinase
  • associated with suppuration and abscess formation, usually in cervical lymph nodes
  • other signs can include torticollis, nasal or ocular discharge, dyspnea and cyanosis, hematuria and hemoglobinuria, cyanotic and swollen mammary glands, abortions, stillnirths, unexpected deaths
  • presence of enlarged cervical lymph nodes in otherwise healthy guinea pigs is typical presentation
  • Streptobacliilus moniliformis is a differential that could possibly cause cervical lymphadenitis
  • diagnosis by isolation of beta-hemolytic streptococci from abscess margin or heart blood

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 6 – Biology and Diseases of Guinea Pigs, pp. 212-221.
2) Percy DH and Barthold SW. 2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 5 – Guinea Pig, pp. 221-222, 229-231.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

32

Guinea pig with fibrinopurulent pericarditis. Gram stain of affected tissue reveals Gram-positive diplococci.  What is the presumptive diagnosis?  What are potential sources? How definitively diagnose?

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

Transmission is by aerosol or direct contact with infected animals including guinea pigs, humans, NHPs, and rats, or by contact with infected reproductive tract.

Definitive diagnosis would require serotyping the capsular polysaccharide.The classic test for this is the Quellung test, but newer PCR techniques are replacing.

  • alpha-hemolytic
  • rarely seen in laboratory setting
  • high mortality in acute cases
  • in less acute, depression, anorexia, nasal & ocular discharge, sneezing & coughing, dyspnea, torticollis, or abortion and stillbirths
  • fibrinopurulent pleuritis, pericardiditis, peritonitis, suppurative pneumonia, otitis media, endometritis, arthritis
  • polysaccharide capsule can activate complement which is responsible for some of the pathologic changes

LAM, p 215-16

PB, p 230-31

33

During the necropsy of a rabbit which showed no clinical signs, the following structure was identified in the liver. What is it most likely to be?

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Taenia pisiformis

  • T. pisiformis is most common taeniid tapeworm of dogs in the U.S.
  • Rabbits serve as intermediate host
  • Infestation is usually aymptomatic
  • Cystercercus forms can be seen on liver capsule and serosal surfaces of other viscera
  • Transmission is ingestion of egg-laden proglottids so source could be fresh food or grasses contaminated with dog feces (esp. for lab animals that do not roam outdoors)


1) Baker DG, ed.  2007.  Lynn’s Parasites of Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, IA.  Chapter 4 – Biology of Cestodes, pp. 40-41.
2)  Manning PJ, Ringler DH, Newcomer CE, eds. 1994. The Biology of Laboratory Rabbits, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 11 – Arthropod and Helminth Parasites, pp. 249-250.
3) Owiny JR. 2001. Cysticercosis in laboratory rabbits. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 40(2):45-8
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

34

Necropsy of a rabbit showing no apparent clinical signs.  Most likely diagnosis?

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Eimeria stiedae

  • E. stiedae occurs in domestic and wild rabbits
  • Important cause of poor weight gain, disease and mortality in commercial rabbitries
  • Prepatent period is 15-18 days
  • Weanlings most often affected

LAM, p 346-47

PB, p 289

35

Which of the following drugs has been reported to cause discomfort, tissue reactions, and self-mutilation in small rodents as a result of intramuscular administration?

 

a. Xylazine
b. Midazolam
c. Atropine
d. Ketamine
e. Propofol
 

d. Ketamine

Reference: Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Pharmacology of Injectable Anesthetics, Sedative, and Tranquilizers, p. 48.
Domain 2

36

Tiletamine at lower doses is likely to produce ______ in mice and rats.

excitation

AALA, p 48

37

Effect of single IM high dose of tiletamine in rabbits?

High doses of tiletamine do not provide anesthesia in rabbits and gunea pigs.

High IM doses in rabbits cause significant elevations in BUN and creatinine.

AALA, p 48

38

Compared to femoral venous cut-down placement technique, the single-incision, peripheral-insertion method for vascular access port placement in nonhuman primates DOES NOT result in which of the following outcomes?

a.   Decreased infection rate
b.   Decreased dehiscence
c.   Increased patency duration
d.   Reduced anesthesia requirements for placement

b. Decreased dehiscence

1)  Graham et al. 2010. Refinement of vascular access port placement in nonhuman primates: complication rates and outcomes. Comp Med 60(6):479-485.
2)  Graham et al.  2009. A novel alternative placement site and technique for totally implantable vascular access ports in non-human primates. J Med Primatol 38(3):204–212.
Domain 3

39

Which of the following aspects of an animal’s environment will have the most influence on the activity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus in rats?
 
a. Light
b. Noise
c. Vibration
d. Temperature
e. Pheromones

a. Light

1) Dauchy et al. 2011. Eliminating animal facility light-at-night contamination and its effect on circadian regulation of rodent physiology, tumor growth, and metabolism: a challenge in the relocation of a cancer research laboratory. JAALAS 50(3):326-336.
2) Dauchy et al. 2010. Dark-phase light contamination disrupts circadian rhythms in plasma measures of endocrine physiology and metabolism in rats. Comp Med 60(5):348-356.
Domain 4; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

40

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, how many years must the institutional animal care and use committee maintain records after completion of a protocol involving animals?

3 years

1) Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart C – Research Facilities, §2.36(f) Recordkeeping requirements  (1-1-00 Edition, p. 26)
2) Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA) and Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW).  2002.  Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook.  2nd Edition.  OLAW: Bethesda, MD.  E.1. Recordkeeping and Reporting, p. 170.
3) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Laws, Regulations, and Policies Affecting the Use of Laboratory Animals, p. 23
Domain 5

41

What species have been shown to be the best host for retaining mosquito infectivity for malaria models?

 

Aotus lemurinus griseimembra

A. l. lemurinus

A. l. vociferans

Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis also does relatively well at preserving mosquito infectivity for Plasmodium vivax, but not P. falciparum

NHP BB, vol 2, Diseases, p 312

 

 

42

Which Saimiri species is listed in CITES Appendix I?

Saimiri oerstedii ssp.

LAM, p 694

 

43

Identify genus and species of left and right.  Which would be an appropriate model for Plasmodium falciparum mosquito infectivity?

 

 

Q image thumb

LEFT:  Saimiri sciureus sp. (gothic arch)

RIGHT:  S. boliviensis sp. (roman arch)

Neither are appropriate for P. falciparum.

But, S. boliviensis boliviensis has been shown to enable mosquito infectivity for P. vivax.

 

 

44

What compound alkylates DNA bases and makes point mutations at high frequency when given to mice and zebrafish?

Ethylnitrosurea

1) Trevarrow. 2011. Techniques for optimizing the creation of mutations in zebrafish using N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea. Lab Animal 40(11):353-361.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 30 – Animal Models in Biomedical Research, pp. 1190-1191.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus Musculus) and Secondary Species - Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

45

Which of the following should be considered when housing ferrets at research institutions?

 

a. Ferrets tolerate low temperatures well and high temperatures poorly
b. Male ferrets can be housed with other male ferrets after 12 weeks of age
c. Ferrets can be housed with rats and mice as they share no common diseases
d. Light cycles are not important in nonbreeding ferrets as they are burrowing animals
 

 

a. Ferrets tolerate low temperatures well and high temperatures poorly

  • ferrets have poorly developed sweat glands and are therefore susceptible to heat prostration
  • males should be housed individually after 12 weeks of age
  • females can be housed singly or in groups, but may become pseudopregnant if cohoused
  • ferret odors should be completely separate from rodent housing as it can cause stress, fear, and disruption of breeding and physiology
  • breeding and lactating jills should get 16 hours of light
  • ferrets maintained for breeding or use beyond 6 months should be exposed to "winter" light 6 weeks per year of 14 hours of dark to maintain physiologic normalcy
  • when receiving time-pregnant jills, it's important to maintain photoperiod or inappetance and subsequent pregnancy toxemia can result

References: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 13 – Biology and Diseases of Ferrets, pp. 484-485.
Domain 4; Secondary Species – Ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

 

46

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, which of the following is FALSE regarding the consignment to carriers of nonhuman primates?

 

a. The consigner must certify in writing that the nonhuman primate was offered food and water within 4 hours prior to delivery to the carrier
b. Carriers must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport more than 2 hours before the scheduled departure time
c. When a nonhuman primate has arrived at the terminal facility after transport, the carrier must attempt to notify the consignee upon arrival and at least once in every 6-hour period after arrival
d. The certification accompanying the nonhuman primate must include a statement by a veterinarian that the animal is acclimated to air temperatures lower than 50°F, but not lower than the minimum temperature specified on the certificate
 

b is false

Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept an NHP for transport more than 4 hours before scheduled departure time. However, a carrier or intermediate handler may agree with anyone consigning an NHP to extend this time by up to 2 hours.

Animal Welfare Regulations, CFR Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A, Part 3 – Standards, Subpart D – Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates, §3.86 (a) Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers (11-05 Edition p. 98).
Domain 5

47

How many hours after the initiation of fasting do rats begin to develop a significant corticosterone response as indicated by increases in serum corticosterone levels? 

 

a.   4 
b.   6
c.   12
d.   16
e.   24
 

e. 24

Reference: Nowland et al. 2011. Effects of short-term fasting in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Comp Med 61(2):138-44.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

48

Identify the species and the surgical procedure being performed.

Q image thumb

Iguana iguana, coeliotomy

1)  Alworth, LC et al.  2011.  Laboratory reptile surgery:  principles and techniques.  JAALAS.  50: 11-26
2)  Fox, JG, Anderson, LC, Loew, FM, Quimby, FW.  2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA Chapter 18 – Biology and Diseases of Reptiles, p 845. 
Domain 1; Tertiary Species – Reptiles

49

Reflexive withdrawal from noxious stimulation is observed as early as what embryonic day in the rat?

 

a. E14
b. E15
c. E16
d. E17
e. E18
 

d. E17

Reference: Committee on Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Division on Earth and Life Studies.  2003.  Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research.  National Academies Press: Washington, D.C.  Chapter 7 – Perinatal Studies, p. 103.
Domain 2; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

50

Obese (ob/ob) and diabetic (db/db) mice have a single-gene defect affecting genes for which of the following ligands and their respective receptors?

Leptin and leptin receptor

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 30 – Animal Models in Biomedical Research, p. 1205.
2) Cefalu. 2006. Animal models of type 2 diabetes: clinical presentation and pathophysiological relevance to the human condition. ILAR J 47(3):186-198.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

51

This goat was found dead in the holding pen.  An investigation found that new, poorly trained personnel had fed the goats extra concentrate over the past few days.  What is your primary differential for this goat?

Q image thumb

Frothy bloat (tympanites)

Mischler SA, Underwood WJ and Delano ML.  2002.  Biology and Diseases of Ruminants:  Sheep, Goats, and Cattle.  In Laboratory Animal Medicine 2nd edition (Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds), pp. 600-602.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

 

52

Which organization promotes the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge, ideas, and information among veterinarians and veterinary students having an interest in laboratory animal practice?

ASLAP

1) http://www.aslap.org/
Domain 6

53

A large number of young Syrian hamsters present for decreased body condition and palpable abdominal masses. Some animals also have masses involving the skin, primarily around the face and feet. These findings are consistent with an outbreak of what etiological agent?

Q image thumb

Hamster polyomavirus

  • transmitted by contaminated environment and infected urine
  • lymphomas - usually arising in mesentery; no infectious virus (but HaPV DNA can be detected)
  • hair-follicle epitheliomas - contain infectious virus
  • infection in older hamsters is clinically silent with persistent viruria
  • Once enzootic, virus cannot be eliminated without total depopulation and decontamination


1) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 3 – Hamster, pp. 181-183, 187-190
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 5 – Biology and Diseases of Hamsters, pp. 180, 185.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

54

A rabbit presents with a head tilt and poor doing. The animal was euthanized and a necropsy performed. Histology of the brain and kidney show the following lesions. How is this organism primarily shed? 

Q image thumb

Urine - Encephalitozoon cuniculi

  • rabbit most commonly infected but usually subclinical - also infects mouse, guinea pig, squirrel monkey, cat, dog
  • Encephalitozoonosis can occur in immunocompromised people
  • does not stain well with H&E - stains well with Giemsa, Gram(+), or Goodpasture
  • lesions seen in brain and kidney - granulomatous inflammation
  • Decreased IgG and increased IgM response to Brucella antigen seen in rabbits with E. cuniculi
  • mice with E. cuniculi have increased NK cell activity


1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 9 – Biology and Diseases of Rabbits, p. 347-49.
2)  Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 6 – Rabbit, p. 290-94.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

55

A recent study of intraosseous catheters in goat for blood collection found that the catheters stayed in place longest in which location and for how long?

 

a. Proximal tibia, 2.5 days
b. Wing of the ilium, 2.5 days
c. Proximal humerus, 2.5 days
d. Proximal humerus, 24 hours
e. Wing of the ilium, 24 hours
 

d. Proximal humerus, 24 hours

Reference: Jackson et al. 2011. Performance and longevity of a novel intraosseous device in a goat (Capra hircus) model.  JAALAS 50(3):365-373.
Domain 3; Secondary Species – Goat (Capra hircus)

56

Which of the following statements is FALSE with respect to Xenopus laevis?

 

a. They lack a tongue
b. In times of drought, they produce urea rather than ammonia
c. Their main mode of respiration is through the skin
d. Under optimal laboratory conditions, females can reach sexual maturity in 8 months
e.   They have a lateral line
 

c. Their main mode of respiration is through the skin

They use skin for respiration, but it is not as well developed as in other species.  They must periodically come to the surface and gulp air.


1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 17 – Biology and Diseases of Amphibians, p. 809.
2) Reed BT, 2005. Guidance on the Housing and Care of the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis. Royal Society for the Protection of Cruelty to Animals, Horsham, England. http://www.rspca.org.uk/ImageLocator/LocateAsset?asset=document&assetId=1232712646624&mode=prd
Domain 1; Secondary Species - African clawed frog (Xenopus spp.)

57

What is the scientific name of the mouse parasite pictured above?

Q image thumb

Myocoptes musculinus (female)

1)   Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Biology and Diseases of Mice, pp. 102-105.
2) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 1 – Mouse, pp. 85-86.
3)  Lindstrom KE Carbone LG, Kellar DE, Mayorga MS, Wilkerson JD. Soiled Bedding Sentinels for the Detection of Fur Mites in Mice. JAALAS. 2011 Jan; 50(1):54-60
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

58

Which of the following anesthetic agents is a best practices agent for use as an immersion agent in fish?

 

Halothane
Propanidid
Diethyl ether
Quinaldine sulfate
Urethane
 

Quinaldine sulfate

1) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 21 – Anesthesia and Restraint of Laboratory Fish, pp. 524-529.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 20 – Biology and Health of Laboratory Fishes, pp. 896-897
Domain 2; Secondary Species – Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Tertiary Species – Other Fish

59

The Han:SPRD rat is an animal model for which of the following diseases?

 

a.    Liver neoplasia
b.   Retinal detachment
c.    Polycystic kidneys
d.   Kidney neoplasia
e.    Brain infarction
 

c. Polycystic kidneys

1) Hickman and Swan. 2010. Use of body condition score technique to assess health status in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease. JAALAS 49(2):155-159.
2) Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 23 – Spontaneous, Surgically and Chemically Induced Models of Disease, p. 723.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

60

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the use of 70% isopropyl alcohol for bacterial decontamination of surgical instruments in surgery?

 

a. Alcohol is bactericidal
b. Alcohol is a sterilant
c. Alcohol may not penetrate protein-rich material
d. Alcohol is not sporicidal
e. Alcohol is not a high-level disinfectant
 

b. Alcohol is a sterilant

1) Keen et al. 2010. Efficacy of soaking in 70% isopropyl alcohol on aerobic bacterial decontamination of surgical instruments and gloves for serial mouse laparotomies. JAALAS 49(6):832-837.
2) Huerkamp. 2001. Alcohol as a disinfectant for aseptic surgery of rodents: crossing the thin blue line? Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 41(1):11-12.
3) Institute for Laboratory Animal Resources. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Chapter 4 - Veterinary Care, p. 119.
Domain 4

61

This picture shows a difference in cecal size in immunocompromised mice treated with medicated feed for what disease?

Q image thumb

Helicobacter spp.

Most or all Helicobacter species are capable of inducing proliferative typhlocolitis in immunodeficient mice.

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Biology and Diseases of Mice, p. 88-90.
2)  Martino-Cardona et al.  2010.  Eradication of Helicobacter spp. by using medicated diet in mice deficient in functional natural killer cells and complement factor D. JAALAS 49(3) pp294- 299.
Domain 1; Primary Species - Mouse (Mus musculus)

62

Which of the following animals has an orbital plexus rather than a venous sinus?

 

a. Gerbil
b. Hamster
c. Mouse
d. Rat
 

d. Rat


1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 23 – Techniques of Experimentation, p. 1009.
3) Krinke GJ, Bullock G, Burton T. 2000. The Laboratory Rat (Handbook of Experimental Animals), 1st Edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 18 – Experimental Modeling and Research Methodology, pp. 594-595.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

63

Which of the following statements best describes the B6.129P2-Apoa1tm1Unc mouse?

 

a.  A mixed inbred strain with a targeted mutation in the Apoa 1 gene developed at UNC
b.   Transgenic mouse with Apoa 1 as the DNA construct expressed developed at UNC
c.   Congenic strain with targeted mutation in the Apoa 1 gene developed at UNC
d.   Outbred strain developed at UNC
 

c. Congenic strain with targeted mutation in the Apoa 1 gene developed at UNC

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Biology and Disease of Mice, pp. 38-40.
2) Fox JG, Barthold SW, Davisson MT, Newcomer CE, Quimby FW, Smith AL, eds.  2007.  The Mouse in Biomedical Research, 2nd edition, Volume 1 – History, Wild Mice, and Genetics.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 5 - Mouse Strain and Genetic Nomenclature: An Abbreviated Guide, pp. 81-89.
3) International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice and Rat Genome and Nomenclature Committee. Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains. October 2011.
http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/nomen/strains.shtml#congenic
Domain 3; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

64

A rhesus macaque presents with fever, lethargy and a diffuse red maculopapular rash over the majority of haired surfaces. Platelet count is 9000/ul. What is the most likely etiologic agent causing these signs? 

Q image thumb

Cercopithecine herpes 9 virus (simian varicella)

  • disseminated hemorrhagic vesicular exanthema - often observed first in inguinal regions and sparing palms and soles
  • fever
  • in severe cases, progression to pneumonia and hepatitis
  • may demonstrate spontaneous resolution or subclinical course, or may have high fatality rate
  • incubation period is 7-14 days

NHP BB, p17

1) Halliday and Fortman. 2011. Severe thrombocytopenia in aged rhesus macaques infected with simian varicella virus. JAALAS 50(1): 109-113.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, p 748
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rhesus macaque (Macaca SPP.)

65

Which of the following IS NOT a characteristic of hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits?

 

a. Caused by the organism Eimeria stiedae
b. Serum bilirubin levels are usually elevated
c. Older animals are more affected than younger
d. Diarrhea can occur at the terminal stages of the disease
e.   Hepatomegaly is common
 

Q image thumb

c is false

Younger animals are more affected than older animals

  • serum bilirubin levels can rise to 305 mg/dl as soon as day 6 of infection and increasing through days 20-24 before moderating
  • liver can increase to up 20% of body weight (3.7% is normal)


1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 9 - Biology and Diseases of Rabbits, pp. 346-347.
2) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 6 – Rabbit, pp. 288-290.
3) Baker DG, ed. 2007. Flynn’s Parasites of Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. Chapter 15 – Parasites of Rabbits, pp. 454-457.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

66

The most significant adverse stressor caused by toe-clipping neonatal mice as a means of permanent identification is related to which of the following factors?

 

a. Type of scissor used
b. Handling of pups
c. Strain of pup being clipped
d. Adequacy of hemostasis
e. Age at clipping
 

b. Handling of pups

1)  Schaefer et al. 2010. Analysis of physiological and behavioural parameters in mice after toe clipping as newborns. Lab Anim 44(1):7-13.
2) Castelhano-Carlos et al. 2010. Identification methods in newborn C57BL/6 mice: a developmental and behavioural evaluation. Lab Anim 44(2):88-103.
Domain 2; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

67

Experimental infection with which of the following has been used in a model for gastric carcinogenesis in this species?

a. H. hepaticus
b. H. bilis
c. H. cholecystus
d. H. pylori

Q image thumb

d. H. pylori

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 7 – Biology and Diseases of Other Rodents, p. 277.
2)  Percy DH and Barthold SW. 2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 4 – Gerbil, p. 211.
Domain 3; Secondary Species – Gerbil (Meriones spp.)

68

The high resistance of bacterial spores, protozoan cysts and vegetative bacteria to UV and gamma irradiation are related to which of the following factors?

 

a. Highly efficient DNA repair capabilities
b. Small size of the organism
c. Solubility and structure
d. Association with dirt and organic matter
 

a. Highly efficient DNA repair capabilities

  • radiosensitivity of organisms has been shown to correlate with genome volume and the ability to repair DNA damage
  • comparatively small viruses also highly resistant due to small genome size

Reference: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 10 – Microbiological Quality Control for Laboratory Rodents and Lagomorphs, p. 369.
Domain 4