Flashcards in Upper And Lower Leg Deck (49)
What root values give the lumbar plexus?
What root values give the sacral plexus?
How are dermatomes clinically examined?
Using a pin to assess cutaneous sensation
How are myotomes clinically assessed?
by testing the power of the muscle when the muscle contracts using tendon reflex
What peripheral nerves leave the lumbar plexus?
femoral, obturator and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Iliohypogastric (L1), ilioinguinal (L1) and genitofemoral (L1, L2)
What peripheral nerves leave the sacral plexus?
Sciatic, superior and inferior gluteal. Also pudendal nerve (S2,3&4)
Name the ligaments that stabilise the knee
Medial (tbial) collateral, lateral (fibular) collateral, 2 cruciate ligaments (anterior and posterior tibial attachments), oblique and arcuate popliteal ligaments.
Function of menisci
increased joint congruency, assist weight bearing, act as shock absorbers, aid lubrication and participate in locking movement of the knee
Which menisci is not attached?
The lateral is separated from the lateral collateral ligament by the tendon of the popliteus muscle
Name 5 bursae in the knee
suprapatellar, gastocnemius, subcutaneous prepatellar, subcutaneous infrapatellar, deep infrapatellar
What tendons reinforce the knee?
iliotibial tract, sartorius, semitendinosus and gracilis and quadriceps femoris
What rotation occurs in extension?
What unlocks the knee?
The popliteus by laterally rotating femur
What is the patellar ligament called?
The tendon of the quadriceps
What muscles are found in the anterior compartment of the thigh?
Quadriceps femoris (rectus femoris, vasts laterlis, medialis and intermedius) and sartorius
What nerve innervates the anterior compartment of the thigh?
Action of sartorius
flexion of knee
Action of rectus femoris
extension of knee and flexion of hip
What is the most powerful flexor at the hip?
Where is the rectus femoris
superficial to vastus intermedius
What innervates the pectineus?
What muscles are found in the posterior compartment of the thigh?
hamstring muscles (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
What innervates the posterior compartment
Where does the semitendinosus attach?
ischial tuberosity -> medial shaft of the tibia
Where does the biceps femoris attach?
ischial tuberosity -> head of fibula
What muscles are found in the medial compartment of the thigh?
adductor longus, adductor megnus, adductor brevis, pectineus, gracilis and obturator externus
Where do the adductors of the thigh attach?
proximally to the pubic bone
What nerve innervates the adductors?
The obturator (hamstring part of adductor magnus = tibial nerve)
Where does the gracilis attach?
pubic symphysis -> tibia