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Flashcards in Upper And Lower Leg Deck (49)
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1

What root values give the lumbar plexus?

L1-L4

2

What root values give the sacral plexus?

L4-S3

3

How are dermatomes clinically examined?

Using a pin to assess cutaneous sensation

4

How are myotomes clinically assessed?

by testing the power of the muscle when the muscle contracts using tendon reflex

5

What peripheral nerves leave the lumbar plexus?

femoral, obturator and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Iliohypogastric (L1), ilioinguinal (L1) and genitofemoral (L1, L2)

6

What peripheral nerves leave the sacral plexus?

Sciatic, superior and inferior gluteal. Also pudendal nerve (S2,3&4)

7

Name the ligaments that stabilise the knee

Medial (tbial) collateral, lateral (fibular) collateral, 2 cruciate ligaments (anterior and posterior tibial attachments), oblique and arcuate popliteal ligaments.

8

Function of menisci

increased joint congruency, assist weight bearing, act as shock absorbers, aid lubrication and participate in locking movement of the knee

9

Which menisci is not attached?

The lateral is separated from the lateral collateral ligament by the tendon of the popliteus muscle

10

Name 5 bursae in the knee

suprapatellar, gastocnemius, subcutaneous prepatellar, subcutaneous infrapatellar, deep infrapatellar

11

What tendons reinforce the knee?

iliotibial tract, sartorius, semitendinosus and gracilis and quadriceps femoris

12

What rotation occurs in extension?

anteriomedial rotation

13

What unlocks the knee?

The popliteus by laterally rotating femur

14

What is the patellar ligament called?

The tendon of the quadriceps

15

What muscles are found in the anterior compartment of the thigh?

Quadriceps femoris (rectus femoris, vasts laterlis, medialis and intermedius) and sartorius

16

What nerve innervates the anterior compartment of the thigh?

femoral nerve

17

Action of sartorius

flexion of knee

18

Action of rectus femoris

extension of knee and flexion of hip

19

What is the most powerful flexor at the hip?

Psoas major

20

Where is the rectus femoris

superficial to vastus intermedius

21

What innervates the pectineus?

femoral nerve

22

What muscles are found in the posterior compartment of the thigh?

hamstring muscles (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus

23

What innervates the posterior compartment

sciatic nerve

24

Where does the semitendinosus attach?

ischial tuberosity -> medial shaft of the tibia

25

Where does the biceps femoris attach?

ischial tuberosity -> head of fibula

26

What muscles are found in the medial compartment of the thigh?

adductor longus, adductor megnus, adductor brevis, pectineus, gracilis and obturator externus

27

Where do the adductors of the thigh attach?

proximally to the pubic bone

28

What nerve innervates the adductors?

The obturator (hamstring part of adductor magnus = tibial nerve)

29

Where does the gracilis attach?

pubic symphysis -> tibia

30

Describe location of adductor brevis and longus

adductor longus is anterior to adductor brevis