Upper limb Flashcards Preview

Musculoskeletal > Upper limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper limb Deck (39):
1

What are the purposes of the human skeletal?

Shape
Framework for movement
Support of soft tissues of the body
Protection of vital organs
Help with movement

2

What is a joint and what are the 3 types?

A place where 2 or more bones articulate or where bone joins cartilage

There are 3 types:
Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

3

What are the 6 types of synovial joints?

Hinge
Plane
Saddle
Pivot
Ball and socket
Condyloid

4

What are the components of a synovial joint?

Synovial membrane
Hyaline cartilage
Articulate cavity
Fibrous membrane

5

What does the stability of a joint depend on?

Shape
Size and arrangement of its articular surfaces
Ligaments and tone of muscles

6

How to osteoblasts carry out bone formation?

Lay down type 1 collagen sheets

7

Describe the differences between the 3 muscle fibre types

Type 1
Type 2a
Type 2b

8

What is the sliding filament theory of contraction?

Calcium channels release calcium from the sarcoplasm into the sarcoplasmic reticulum post activation of an action potential - calcium binds to troponin causing it to change shape - tropomyosin is pulled away from binding sites - myosin heads move into an extended position by phosphorylation ADP - myosin binds to actin forming a cross bridge - myosin moves actin along using ATP - sarcomere shrinks - myosin head unwinds with actin after using up energy

9

What causes tetanus? Describe the mechanism of the disease

Clostridium tetani causes tetanus
The toxin enters the nervous system through the blood - travels up the axon to cell body in spinal cord - crosses the synaptic cleft between the motor and inhibitory interneuron - inhibitory interneuron prevents motor neurone from continuously firing - leads to unopposed muscle contraction - can lead to fractures, tendon ruptured and death if untreated

10

What occurs at the terminal bud of a nerve at the neuromuscular junction during an action potential?

At axon hillock, sodium enters after a stimulus is reached causing an action potential - influx of sodium causing influx of calcium at the axon terminal - intracellular calcium acts on vesicles which later fuse at the terminal membrane to release acetylcholine - acetylcholine is released into synaptic cleft via exocytosis

11

When do limb buds appear on a foetus?

Towards the end of the 4th week of pregnancy

12

What is syndactyly and what are the 2 different types?

Fusion of digits

Cutaneous syndactyly - fusion of skin between digits
Osseous syndactyly - fusion of bone between digits

13

What 2 ligaments join the clavicle to the coracoid process and how can they be torn?

Coraclavicular ligaments - trapezoid ligament (lateral) and consider ligament (medial)

Can be torn from an acromioclavicular joint dislocation

14

Which movement does the deltoid muscle NOT do to the shoulder?

Adduction

15

Which muscles does the axillary nerve supply?

Deltoid
Teres minor

16

How can damage to the axillary nerve occur?

Shoulder dislocation
Intramuscular injection
Surgical neck of humerus fracture

17

Which muscles make up the rotator cuff?

Supraspinatous
Infraspinatous
Teres minor
Subscapularis

18

What are the 3 joints in the shoulder complex?

Glenohumeral
Sternoclavicular
Acromioclavicular

19

Falling on an outstretched hand can lead to what possible injuries?

Dislocation of the glenohumeral joint
Fracture of clavicle
Scaphoid fracture
Colle’s fracture

20

Which 3 things form the coracoacromial arch?

Coracoacromial ligament
Acromion
Coracoid process

21

What is painful arc syndrome and what are the symptoms?

Pain caused by the supraspinatus tendon rubbing under the coracoacromial arch which can lead to bursitis, supraspinatous tendonitis, degeneration and rupture of a tendon

Symptoms include pain during abduction

22

What structures can become fractured following a mid-shaft humeral fracture?

Profunda brachii artery
Radial nerve
Brachial artery

23

Which nerve roots are part of the brachial plexus?

C5 to T1

24

What is Erb’s palsy?

Injury to the superior parts of the brachial plexus resulting in paralysis of the shoulder and arm muscles presenting with the waiter’s tip appearance

25

What muscles can be found in the arm (shoulder to elbow)? Where are they in relation to each other?

Biceps brachii
Triceps
Brachialis
Coracobrachialis

26

Which muscles of the upper arm do the musculocutaneous nerve and radial nerve supply?

Musculocutaneous - biceps, brachialis and coracobrachialis

Radial - triceps

27

Describe the anatomical location of these nerves in relation to the humerus? Musculocutaneous, median, ulnar and radial

Musculocutaneous- anterior to the humerus

Median - medial to the humerus

Ulnar nerve - medial to humerus, posterior to medial epicondyle

Radial nerve - posterior and lateral to humerus

28

Where is the cubital fossa location and what are the landmarks?

A triangular region located anterior to the elbow

Brachioradialis - lateral border
Pronator teres - medial border
Inter-epicondylar line - superior border

29

What movements do the muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm do?

Flexion of the wrist

Pronation of the wrist

30

Which nerve supplies most of the anterior forearm muscles?

Median nerve

Flexor Capri ulnaris - only ulnar nerve supplied

31

Which nerve supplies the posterior forearm muscles?

Radial nerve

32

What is tennis elbow? What is golfer’s elbow?

Tennis - inflammation of the lateral epicondyle

Golfer’s - inflammation of the medial epicondyle

33

What movements does the elbow joint allow?

Flexion

Extension

34

What is carpal tunnel syndrome and what are the signs and symptoms?

Pressure on the median nerve where it passes through the wrist

Symptoms include sensory loss, paraesthesia and pain in lateral 3.5 digits

35

What 5 components can be found in the anatomical snuff box?

Radial artery
Radial styloid process
Scaphoid
Trapezium
Base of the 1st metacarpal

36

What are the main causes of nerve injury in the upper limb?

Trauma

Doctors (surgery)

37

What are the typical signs and symptoms of a fracture?

Pain
Swelling
Deformity
Loss of function
Tenderness
Crepitus

38

What factors influence bone healing?

Type of injury
Type of bone injured
Blood supply
Muscle cover
Nerve supply
Age
Illnesses

39

What is compartment syndrome and what are the symptoms?

Raised pressure within an enclosed bundle of muscles leading to localised tissue ischaemia

Symptoms are PAIN, pain, pain, pain and pain