Upper Respiratory tract infections and Influenza Flashcards Preview

Respiratory (LECTURE NOTES) > Upper Respiratory tract infections and Influenza > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper Respiratory tract infections and Influenza Deck (39):
1

What is the biggest complication of URTI in children

Epiglottitis

2

What is the biggest complication of URTI in adults

Influenza A

3

What is the medical term for the common cold

Coryza

4

What is the common cold characterised by

Rhinorrhoea
Sneezing
Nasal Obstruction
Sore throat

5

What causes the common cold

Rhinoviruses, coronaviruses
There are over 200 different types of viruses

6

How is infection of coryza spread

Droplets

7

What happens to the bacterial flora of the nasopharynx in the first few days of infection

Remains normal

8

What happens to the bacterial flora of the nasopharynx after the first few days of infection

Increase in the number of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae organisms

9

If a secondary infection tot the common cold were to occur what would it give rise to

Sinusitis
Otitis media
Bronchitis
Pneumonia

10

What is the treatment for the common cold

No treatment - paracetamol or aspirin relieves symptoms

11

What causes pharyngitis

Viruses
Beta- haemolytic streptococci
Mycoplasma pneymoniae
Chlamydophilia pneymoniae

12

What are the symtoms of the common cold

Erythema of the pharynx
Enlargement of the tonsils
Sore throat

13

What is also involved in Infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever)

Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly

14

What causes glandular fever

Epstein-Barr virus

15

What do patients with glandular fever develop if given amoxicilin

A rash

16

When is antibiotic treatment of pharyngitis used

Usually only in severe or complicated cases

17

What antibiotics should be used if required

Amoxicillin or phenoxymethylpenicillin for streptococci
Tetracycline or macrolide for Mycoplasma pneumoniae or CHlamydophila pneumoniae

18

What is sinusitis

Infection of the maxillary sinuses causing facial pain, nasal obstruction and discharge

19

What organisms can cause sinusitis

Viruses
Haemophilus influenzae
Strep pneumoniae
Staph aureus
Anaerobic bacteria

20

What might be seen on a Xray in sinusitis

Mucosal thickning
Opacification
presence of a fluid level in the sinus

21

What may cause a persistant cough

Post nasal dripping irritating the larynx

22

How is sinusitis usually treated

With antibiotics
nasal decongestants
analgesia

23

What is acute laryngitis

Temporary hoarseness or loss of voice

24

When does laryngitis occur

With pharyngitis
Common cold
oedema of the vocal cords

25

What is the treatment for acute laryngitis

None

26

What are the symptoms of croup

Barking cough which may progress to stridor

27

What organisms cause croup

Viruses

28

What is the treatment of croup

Often none is required
Oral prednisolone is sometimes beneficial if severe
Nebulised high-dose budesonide = more rapid recovery

29

What is acute epiglottitis

Very serious disease that is usually cause by virulent strains of Haemophilus influenzae type B often with septicaemia

30

Who is most likely to develop acute epiglottitis

Children aged 2-3

31

What are the symptoms of acute epiglottitis

Pyrexia
Sore throat
Laryngitis
Painful dysphagia

32

What are the antibiotics used to treat acute epiglottitis

Amphenicol or cefuroxime

33

What is making acute epiglottitis more rarely seen

The widespread use of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae in childhood

34

What is the antigenic drift in flu

Minor changes to the surface antigens

35

What does the antigenic drift result in

Outbreaks of seasonal influenza in the winter months

36

What are major changes in the surface antigens called

Antigenic shift

37

What do antigenic shifts result in

Epidemics and pandemics of infection reflecting the lack of immunity in the population to the new strain

38

What is the most effective way of preventing illness from seasonal influenza

Vaccination

39

Who is entitled to get the flu vaccination

Over 65s
Chronic respiratory disease (COPD, asthma, bronchiectasis)
chronic heart failure
renal fialure
diabetics
immunosuppressed patients
those in nursing homes