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Flashcards in Urban Issues Deck (27):

What is urbanisation

The process where an increasing proportion of the population lives in towns and cities in comparison with rural areas


Two reasons cities grow

Rural to urban migration
Natural increases when the birth rate is higher than the death rate so the population of city grows


What a rural to urban migration

In many LiCs and NEEs most people live in rural areas but due to developing economy more have decided to migrate to the cities


What is a mega city

A city which has a population of over 10 million people
These will develop at different rates with some growing slowly and others rapidly


How many mega cities around the whole

28 mega cities in 2015


In HiCs what percentage of the population live in cities

Over 60% in most rich countries


What is the percentage of people who live in cities in LiCs

Almost 40% on average in Niger and Ethiopia


What percentage will India, China and Nigeria account for of the projected growth of worlds urban pop between 2014-2050



Examples of push factors that would lead to rural to urban migration in LiCs or NEEs

Farming is hard and poorly paid
Drought and other climate hazards reduce crop yields
Poor harvests may lead to malnutrition or famine


Examples of pull factors that would lead to rural to urban migration in LiCs or NEEs

More well paid jobs
Better chance of getting an education
Better medical facilities


What is natural increase

Where birth rate is higher than death rate


Why is natural increase high in urban areas in LiCs and some NEEs

In LiCs (Cambodia) and some NEEs (India) have high natural increase as improvements to health care in poorer countries results to a lower death rate


Where is Rio situated (CASE STUDY)

On Brazil’s Atlantic Coast


Why is Rio important to Brazil (CASE STUDY)

It contains a major port- main exports are sugar, coffee and iron ore. It’s also a Hugh tourist attraction due to Christ the Redeemer (one of the seven wonders of the world)


What is the international importance of Rio (CASE STUDY)

An international centre for many important companies


Pull factors that have encouraged people to move to Rio from other places (CASE STUDY)

Education- more children can access schools and quality of facilities are better
Access to better healthcare
Access to clean water and better sanitation


An improvement made to healthcare in Rio in recent years

Medical staff go to favelas and take kits to the house to identify diseases and treat them


An improvement to education in Rio

Introducing ‘project favela’ where people offer children football training in exchange for good grades


An improvement to water supply in Rio

7 new treatment plants have been built from 1998-2014


An improvement to energy supply in Rio

In 2013, a new HEP plant was built, increasing supply by 30%


What industries have contributed to Rios economy development

Port industries ( import and export) and service industries (finance and banking)


What are squatter settlements

Illegal settlements where people have built homes on land that they did not own. Also known as Favelas


Why have squatter settlements in Rio grown

People leave Amazonia and drought hits areas of north east Brazil in hope of finding a better life in the city. Many are young adults so birth rates are higher


Where are favelas located in Rio

60% in Suburbs and 25% in outer parts of city


What does Rios natural surroundings include (CASE STUDY)

A large natural bay located in the east of rio called guanábara bay. Sugar loaf mountain is also located in east


What are the advantages of rios natural surroundings (CASE STUDY)

It makes Rio one of the most visited cities in Southern Hemisphere. This means the economy is heavily supported and reliant on tourism


Why is Rio such a popular tourist destination (CASE STUDY)

Culture capital of Brazil with the statue of Christ the redeemer, 50 museums and its annual carnival is one of the biggest music and dance celebrations in the world