*Urban Issues and Challenges (Paper 2) Flashcards Preview

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Define urbanisation

The rise in the percentage of people living in urban areas (towns and cities), in comparison with rural areas.


Describe the global pattern of urban change 

  • Rates of urbansiation different depending on whether the country is rich or poor.
  • The most rapid urban growth is happening in LICs.
  • The lowest rates of urban growth is in HICs
  • The rate of urban growth in NEEs is starting to slow.


Which continent has the highest rate of urbanisation?



What two factors affect the rate of urbanisation?

1. Rural-urban migration 

2. Natural increase 


Define natural increase

When the birth rate in a country is greater than the death rate.


Define migration

The movement of population from one area to another. Some migrations are forced, voluntary, permanent and temporary, International and regional.


How is natural increase calculated?

Birth Rate minus Death Rate/100 (to express as a percentage)


Define rural to urban migration

The movement of people from rural to urban areas due to rural push and urban pull factors.


List three push factors

  • Drought / flooding
  • Lack of services
  • Few opportunities
  • Low pay
  • Poverty


List three pull factors

  • Better quality of life
  • Better access to services (e.g. education, health and entertainment)
  • Better quality houses
  • Increased pay
  • Improved opportunities


What is a megacity?

A city with a population of 10 million people or more.


Name three megacities

Los Angeles, Mexico City, New York, Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo, Lagos, Karachi, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Dhaka, Jakarta, Metro Manila, Shanghai, Osaka, Tokyo.


Which two population factors combine to produce megacities?

Migration + Natural Increase


Which continent has the largest number of megacities?



Describe the location of Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Jeneiro is a city located in the country of Brazil.  Brazil is a country in South America. 


Give a reason to explain why Rio is an internationally important city 

  • It held the 2009 Olympic Games
  • Main tourist destinations in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • It has a major port - its main exports are coffee, sugar and iron ore.


Give a reason to explain why Rio is a nationally important city 

  • It is Brazil's second largest city in terms of its financial and service industries. 
  • It produces 5% of Brazil's GDP
  • It is considered the cultural capital of Brazil with many museums, popular music and the famous Carnaval celebration


Why has Rio de Janeiro grown as a city? 

  • Rio has grown as a major industrial city. 
  • It has developed as a Global City because of its industry and its excellent transport links i.e. 5 ports and 3 airports. 
  • Increase amount of migrants moving to the city in the search for work or a better quality of life. 


City growth in Rio de Janeiro is prevented by which physical factors?

There are mountains to the north and west, and sea to the south and east.


How is Rio's housing segregated?

- High class residential areas are found next to the CBD  (city centre) and along beaches of areas such as Copacabana.

- Middle level residential areas have developed near the airport and highways.

- Favelas have grown on the edge of the urban area.


How has urban growth created opportunities for Rio?

  • The growth of Rio has boosted the city's economic development. This has improved city's infrastructure. 
  • Global companies have been attracted creating formal sector jobs. 
  • Hosting the Olympic games in 2009 had led to sponsorship deals worth $900million


Describe the social challenges facing Rio

  • 1. Health care - just over half of the city has access to a local health clinic. 
  • 2. Education - half of all children continue their education after 14. Many become involved in crime. 
  • 3. Water supply - 12% of Rio's population did not have access to running water.
  • 4. Energy - shortage of elecricity  = powercuts 


Describe the economic challenges facing Rio

  • 1. Unemployment - 20% of those living in favelas are unemployed.
  • 2. Lots of people working in the informal sector - they don't pay taxes, don't have insurance and are poorly paid.
  • 3. Crime - Robbery and violent crime are big challenges.


Describe the environmental challenges facing Rio

  • 1. Air pollution - causes 5,000 deaths per year in Rio
  • 2. Traffic congestion caused by few roads due to mountain landscape and  more people owning cars. 
  • 3. Water pollution - Guanabara Bay is highly polluted causing a threat to wildlife. Caused by pollution from favelas and industrial waste.
  • 4. Waste pollution - it is difficult to get waste collection lorries into the steep sided streets of the favelas


How have social problems in Rio been solved?

  • 1. Health care - medical staff have taken medical kits to people's homes 
  • 2. Education - encouraging local volunteers to help in schools, opening a university in Rocinha
  • 3. Water supply - 7 water treatment plants were built. By 2014, 95% of he population had a mains water supply.
  • 4. Energy - 60km of new power lines installed, developing Simplicio hydro-electric complex which will increase Rio's electricity supply by 30%


How have the economic problems in Rio been solved?

  • 1. Unemployment - 'Schools of Tomorrow' programme aims to improve education for young people in the poor and violent areas of the city.
  • 2. High levels of informal sector employment - courses are available for adults who have temporarily left education but want to continue their studies.
  • 3. Crime - Police Pacifying Units were established to reclaim favelas from drug dealers


How have the environmental problems in Rio been solved?

  • 1. Air pollution - expansion of the metro system (public transport)
  • 2. Traffic congestion - new toll roads in the city centre
  • 3. Water pollution - 12 new sewage works have been built, ships fined for dumping waste
  • 4. Waste pollution - a power plant has been set up using methane gas (biogas) from rotting rubbish.


Define informal sector

People working that do not receive a regular wage, making and/ or selling goods/services unofficially, often for ‘cash in hand’. They don’t have a contract, health and safety protection, health insurance or pension schemes. They don’t pay taxes


Define shanty town

A squatter settlement that springs up in an area that used to have no houses. (Also called spontaneous settlements).


Define squatter

Someone who settles on land without the legal rights to stay there