Urban Issues and Challenges: Rio Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Urban Issues and Challenges: Rio Deck (11):
1

Megacity

A very large city with a population of over 10 million people.

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Why are megacities on the rise?

1) Globalisation and economic competition
2) Mass rural to urban migration
3) Government policies such as special enterprise zones

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Opportunities in megacities:

•Less environmentally damaging to provide transport, housing + electricity to a dense urban area compared to a dispersed rural population.

•Centres of innovation (technological change/sustainability).

•Access to larger + more diverse employment markets.

•Produces on average 2-3 times more GDP per capita than other cities.

•Better levels of healthcare + education (improves life of poor + empowers women in counties with unequal status)

•Fuel political pressure for change (large numbers of younger people)

•Opportunities to expand services for large numbers

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Urban change in a major NEE city: Rio de Janeiro case study

Location and Background

-Situated on Brazil’s Atlantic Coast in South America
-Has grown up and around a large natural bay (Guanabara Bay)
-2nd largest economy in Brazil
-Cultural capital of Brazil - 50 museums, Carnival
-Important international hub - major port for imports + exports, 3 airports

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Urban change in a major NEE city: Rio de Janeiro case study

Why is Rio an important city?

•Contributes 5% Brazil's GDP
•Christ the Redeemer - 1 of 7 Wonders of World
•Tourism + major port provides lots of jobs
•Home to steel industry
•2014 FIFA World Cup + 2016 Olympics
•Famous carnivals
•Historic buildings
•Sugar Loaf Mountain + Copacabana Beach

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Urban change in a major NEE city: Rio de Janeiro case study

Rural to urban migration - Caatinga to Rio (PUSH factors)

-Little education
-Extremely hot, with drought + unreliable rain
-Poor, thin soils make farming difficult
-Malaria
-No help from gov
-Lacks raw materials, therefore few industries

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Urban change in a major NEE city: Rio de Janeiro case study

Rural to urban migration - Caatinga to Rio (PULL factors)

+ More reliable work with higher wages
+ Gov offer people in favelas opportunity to improve their living conditions
+ Gov provide land with water, sewage + electricity already available
+ Big + wealthy city

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Urban change in a major NEE city: Rio de Janeiro case study

Social challenges in Rio

-12% of pop don’t have access to clean running water
-Whole city suffers from frequent blackouts due to shortage of electricity
-30% of pop not connected to a sanitation system
-Only half of all children continue education after 14 (resort to crime)

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Urban change in a major NEE city: Rio de Janeiro case study

Economic challenges in Rio

-Unemployment rates over 20% in favelas
-1.1 million work in informal sector - many don’t have insurance or unemployment benefits + gov receives no income from them

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Urban change in a major NEE city: Rio de Janeiro case study

Environmental challenges in Rio

-Air pollution causes 5000 deaths per year
-84% untreated sewage flows directly into Guanabara Bay =major threat to wildlife
-Waste collection lorries can’t access favelas, so most waste is dumped + pollutes water system causing cholera + encouraging rats
-Most congested city in South America - traffic increases air pollution + wastes time for commuters

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Urban change in a major NEE city: Rio de Janeiro case study

Urban planning - Favela Bairro Project

•Site + service scheme, so local authority provides land + services for residents to build own homes.
•Widened + paved roads (better access for work + emergency services)
•Access to water + sanitation (cleaner)
•Secure hillsides to prevent landslides (safer)
•New health + education facilities (can get better payed jobs)
•Cable car (can get to work + quicker)
•Police Pacifying Unit (reduces crime, safer)