Urinalysis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Urinalysis Deck (68):
1

What can urinalysis reveal?

diseases that have gone unnoticed

2

Why do diseases go unnoticed?

because they do not produce striking signs of symptoms

3

What should you protect urine samples from?

sunlight

4

Why should you protect urine samples from sunlight?

bilirubin and urobilinogen will be falsely decreased

5

What should you do with your urine sample soon after collection?

Examine of refrigerate

6

How soon should a urine sample be examined?

as soon as possible, within 30 minutes

7

How long can urine samples be refrigerated?

6-12 hours

8

When sending a urine sample off to a lab you should do what?

add 1 drop of 40% formalin in 1 oz of urine

9

When is the best time to get a urine sample?

early morning

10

Why does collecting your sample in the early morning best?

because it best reflects kidneys ability to concentrate urine

11

Where is a catheter placed?

in urethra

12

When is catherization indicated?

in surgeries or as an alternative to voided

13

What is a cystocentesis?

abdominal needle aspiration of bladder

14

What does the evaluation of chemical properties include?

pH, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogin, occult blood

15

What does the evaluation of sediment include?

RBC, WBC, epithelial cells, casts, crystals, bacteria, misc

16

What color is normal, fresh urine?

pale to dark yellow or amber and clear

17

What color may equine urine be upon standing?

brown

18

What causes cloudy urine?

pus, blood, mucus, bacteria, casts, or crystals

19

Why is fresh equine urine cloudy?

mucus and calcium carbonate crystals

20

Why may urine be an abnormal color?

food dye, eating fresh beets, a drug, or the presence of either RBC's, hemoglobin, or myoglobin

21

Bright red urine

hematuria

22

What causes hematuria?

RBC's in urine from hemmorage

23

What causes hemoglobinuria?

hemoglobin in urine from hemolysis

24

Reddish brown urine?

myoglobinuria

25

Yellowish brown with foam urine?

high concentrations of bilirubin or urobilin

26

Polyuria

excessive amount output

27

Polydipsia

excessive intake

28

Oliguria

decreased amounts output

29

Anuria

lack of production of urine

30

How much urine should a dog or cat produce in 24 hours?

20-44 ml/kg

31

How much urine should a horse produce in 24 hours?

5-15 L

32

What does urine with bacteria smell like?

foul

33

What does Ketonuria make urine smell like?

sweet smell

34

What is normal pH?

between 6 and 8

35

Most normal urine samples are what for protein?

negative

36

Normal animals are what for glucose?

negative

37

Normal animals have how many ketones present in their urine?

none

38

Leukocyte presence may be what?

false positive

39

What amounts of bilirubin are normal in dogs?

small amounts

40

What amount of bilirubin is normal in cats?

any amount

41

How long should urine be centrifuged?

5-6 minutes

42

When are squamous epithelial cells common?

in voided samples

43

What are transitional epithelial cells from?

mucosa lining of the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and/or proximal urethrea

44

What are renal tubular epithelial cells?

slightly larger than leukocytes

45

What do large numbers of transitional epithelial cells mean?

inflammation large, round nucleas

46

What do increase numbers of renal tubular epithelial cells suggest?

tubular damage pyelonephritis, necrosis

47

Where may erythrocytes originate?

from any part of the urinary tract

48

What may cause erythrocytes in urine?

due to disease or trauma

49

What are casts?

molded in lumen of the tubules of the kidney

50

What may casts contain?

elements present at time of formation

51

Red cell cast is always what?

pathogenic

52

Hyaline is most what?

frequent

53

What does hyaline look like?

colorless, transparent

54

white cell cast

renal infection or inflammation

55

Granular casts

degeneration of cellular casts

56

What do granular casts look like?

large and coarse

57

Epithelial cell casts

stasis, renal disease of the tubules

58

Waxy cells are the degeneration of what?

granular casts

59

What do waxy casts cause?

severe chronic renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, acute renal disease

60

Fatty casts

free fat droplets

61

Fatty casts are the degeneration of what?

tubular epithelium, diabetic glomerulosclerosis, lupus, toxic renal poisoning

62

Crystals are usually not found in what?

freshly voided urine

63

When do crystals appear?

after urine stands for a while

64

What are some acid urine crystals?

uric acid, calcium orate, amorphous urates

65

What are some alkaline crystals?

triple phosphate/ struvite

66

Where are alkaline crystals found?

in normal urine

67

What can alkaline crystals form?

urinary calculi, cystitis, enlarged prostate

68

What are some alkaline?

calcium carbonate, ammonium biruate, amorphous phosphates, calcium phosphate