Flashcards in Urinalysis Deck (68):
What can urinalysis reveal?
diseases that have gone unnoticed
Why do diseases go unnoticed?
because they do not produce striking signs of symptoms
What should you protect urine samples from?
Why should you protect urine samples from sunlight?
bilirubin and urobilinogen will be falsely decreased
What should you do with your urine sample soon after collection?
Examine of refrigerate
How soon should a urine sample be examined?
as soon as possible, within 30 minutes
How long can urine samples be refrigerated?
When sending a urine sample off to a lab you should do what?
add 1 drop of 40% formalin in 1 oz of urine
When is the best time to get a urine sample?
Why does collecting your sample in the early morning best?
because it best reflects kidneys ability to concentrate urine
Where is a catheter placed?
When is catherization indicated?
in surgeries or as an alternative to voided
What is a cystocentesis?
abdominal needle aspiration of bladder
What does the evaluation of chemical properties include?
pH, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogin, occult blood
What does the evaluation of sediment include?
RBC, WBC, epithelial cells, casts, crystals, bacteria, misc
What color is normal, fresh urine?
pale to dark yellow or amber and clear
What color may equine urine be upon standing?
What causes cloudy urine?
pus, blood, mucus, bacteria, casts, or crystals
Why is fresh equine urine cloudy?
mucus and calcium carbonate crystals
Why may urine be an abnormal color?
food dye, eating fresh beets, a drug, or the presence of either RBC's, hemoglobin, or myoglobin
Bright red urine
What causes hematuria?
RBC's in urine from hemmorage
What causes hemoglobinuria?
hemoglobin in urine from hemolysis
Reddish brown urine?
Yellowish brown with foam urine?
high concentrations of bilirubin or urobilin
excessive amount output
decreased amounts output
lack of production of urine
How much urine should a dog or cat produce in 24 hours?
How much urine should a horse produce in 24 hours?
What does urine with bacteria smell like?
What does Ketonuria make urine smell like?
What is normal pH?
between 6 and 8
Most normal urine samples are what for protein?
Normal animals are what for glucose?
Normal animals have how many ketones present in their urine?
Leukocyte presence may be what?
What amounts of bilirubin are normal in dogs?
What amount of bilirubin is normal in cats?
How long should urine be centrifuged?
When are squamous epithelial cells common?
in voided samples
What are transitional epithelial cells from?
mucosa lining of the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and/or proximal urethrea
What are renal tubular epithelial cells?
slightly larger than leukocytes
What do large numbers of transitional epithelial cells mean?
inflammation large, round nucleas
What do increase numbers of renal tubular epithelial cells suggest?
tubular damage pyelonephritis, necrosis
Where may erythrocytes originate?
from any part of the urinary tract
What may cause erythrocytes in urine?
due to disease or trauma
What are casts?
molded in lumen of the tubules of the kidney
What may casts contain?
elements present at time of formation
Red cell cast is always what?
Hyaline is most what?
What does hyaline look like?
white cell cast
renal infection or inflammation
degeneration of cellular casts
What do granular casts look like?
large and coarse
Epithelial cell casts
stasis, renal disease of the tubules
Waxy cells are the degeneration of what?
What do waxy casts cause?
severe chronic renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, acute renal disease
free fat droplets
Fatty casts are the degeneration of what?
tubular epithelium, diabetic glomerulosclerosis, lupus, toxic renal poisoning
Crystals are usually not found in what?
freshly voided urine
When do crystals appear?
after urine stands for a while
What are some acid urine crystals?
uric acid, calcium orate, amorphous urates
What are some alkaline crystals?
triple phosphate/ struvite
Where are alkaline crystals found?
in normal urine
What can alkaline crystals form?
urinary calculi, cystitis, enlarged prostate