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Flashcards in Urinary Deck (39):
1

Functions

1. Filters blood, removes wastes, produces urine. 2. Formation of calcitriol. 3. Production and release of erythropoietin. 4. Regulation of ions, acids, and bases. 5. Help regulate blood pressure. 6. Gluconeogenesis.

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Organs of the urinary system

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra.

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Filtration (General)

in renal corpuscle, forces fluid out with dissolved solutes.

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Tubular reabsorption (General)

reclaim useful materials from fluid

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Tubular secretion (general)

remove and concentrate unwanted materials in fluid becoming urine. Secretion leads to excretion

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Which cavity are the kidneys in?

Retroperitoneal space, so no serous membrane

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layers of CT around Kidney

1. Fibrous capsule: dense irreg CT, prevents infection 2. Perirenal fat pad: adipose insulates and protects from trauma 3. Renal fascia: Dense irregular CT anchors kidney to surrounding structures

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What kind of tissue is the kidney made of?

Parenchymal tissue

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Space between renal pyramids

Renal columns

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Renal pyramids lead to

renal papilla

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renal papilla

occur at the tip of the renal pyramid.

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Major and mini calyces

merge to form renal pelvis

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Site of filtration

renal corpuscle

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Renal corpuscle

1. Golmerulus: specialized capillary bed with afferent and efferent arterioles. 2. glomerulus capsule: surrounds golmerulus

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layers of glomerulus capsule

1. visceral layer: contain podocytes 2. parietal layer: squamous cells joined by tight junctions

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Renal tubule

PCT, Nephron loop, DCT

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Nephron loop

thick cells: simple cuboidal. Thin cells: simple squamous

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Types of nephrons

cortical nephrons: near peripheral edge: nephron loop barely penetrates medulla. juxtamedullary nephrons: corpuscles are adjacent to corticomedullary junction. Nephron loop deep in medulla

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Flow of filtrate to urine

afferent arteriole --> gomerulus --> golmerulus capsule --> capsular space --> PCT --> nephron loop --> DCT --> collecting tubules -->collecting ducts --> papillary ducts --> renal papillae --> minor calyces --> major calyces -->renal pelvis --> ureter --> bladder --> urethra

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Capillary types

peritubular capillaries: through cortical nephrons. vasa recta capillaries: through the nephron loop

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Blood flow

Renal artery --> segmental artery--> interlobar artery -->arcuate arteries --> interlobular arteries --> afferent arteriols --> glomerulus --> efferent arteriole --> peritubular or vasa recta capillaries --> interlobular vein --> arcuate veins --> interlobar veins --> renal veins -->

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What regulate filtrate formation and blood pressure?

juxtagolmerular apparatus

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Granular cells

modified smooth muscle afferent arterioles that 1. contract stimulated by stretch or sympathetic nervous system. 2. store, produce, and release renin.

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Macula densa

modified epithelial cells in the DCT that sense NaCl.

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Filtration membrane

1. endothelium of glomerulus (fenestrated) 2. Basement membrane of flomerulus 3. visceral layer of glomerular capsule with podocytes separated by filtration slits.

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Freely filtered

water, glucose, amino acids, hormones, vitamins and minerals

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Not filtered

formed elements, large proteins

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limited filtration

mid sized proteins

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Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

pushes water and some dissolved solutes into capsular space

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Blood Colloid osmotic pressure

osmotic pressure exerted by bolo due to dissolved solids

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Capsular hydrostatic pressure

pressure in glomerular capsule due to amount of filtrate already in capsular space

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Glomerular filtration rate

Rate at which the vole of filtrate is formed.

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Myogenic mechanism

low blood pressure stimulates afferent arteriole to vasodialate. high BP stimulates afferent arteriole to constrct to maintain GFP.

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Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms

macula dense cells of DCT are sensitive to NaCl levels. Increased NaCl (Too much GFR) sensed by MD, stimulate vasoconsticion of afferent arteries. Decrease HP(out) and lower GFR Decreased NaCl (Too little GFR) sensed by MD, stimulate vasodialation . Increase HP(out) and increase GFR.

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Sympathetic stimulation of GA

1. Vasocontriction of afferent and efferent arterioles= decrease blood flow into glomerulus. -decreased GFR, decreased urine production, retains fluid and blood volume. 2. Contraction of mesangial cells=decrease filtration at flomerulus, lower GFR, lower urine production retains fluid and blood volume.

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36

Atrial natriuretic peptide

Stimulus: high BP, atrial wall stretches. Control center: ANP released by heart. 1.vasodialation of afferent arteriole, increased blood flow to glomerulus, increase GFR, more urine, loss of additional fluid, decrease blood volume. 2. relaxation of mesangial cells= increased filtration surface area, increased GFR,

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Tubular reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubule

 

100% glucose, amino acids, vitamins and minerals, water, hormones, urea and Uric acid, ions

 

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Tubular secretion in 

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