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Flashcards in Urinary Deck (46):
1

absence of urine produced; production of 50 mL or less per day

anuria

2

enzyme produced by leukocytes that can be detected in the urine and that serves as an indirect indicator of urinary tract infection

leukocyte esterase

3

below normal urine production of 400–500 mL/day

oliguria

4

urine production in excess of 2.5 L/day; may be caused by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, or excessive use of diuretics

polyuria

5

heme-derived pigment that imparts the typical yellow color of urine

urochrome

6

smooth or skeletal muscle surrounding the lumen of a vessel or hollow organ that can restrict flow when contracted

anatomical sphincter

7

smooth muscle in the bladder wall; fibers run in all directions to reduce the size of the organ when emptying it of urine

detrusor muscle

8

skeletal muscle; must be relaxed consciously to void urine

external urinary sphincter

9

smooth muscle at the juncture of the bladder and urethra; relaxes as the bladder fills to allow urine into the urethra

internal urinary sphincter

10

loss of ability to control micturition

incontinence

11

also called urination or voiding

micturition

12

sphincter consisting of circular smooth muscle indistinguishable from adjacent muscle but possessing differential innervations, permitting its function as a sphincter; structurally weak

physiological sphincter

13

outside the peritoneal cavity; in the case of the kidney and ureters, between the parietal peritoneum and the abdominal wall

retroperitoneal

14

group of neurons in the sacral region of the spinal cord that controls urination; acts reflexively unless its action is modified by higher brain centers to allow voluntary urination

sacral micturition center

15

area at the base of the bladder marked by the two ureters in the posterior–lateral aspect and the urethral orifice in the anterior aspect oriented like points on a triangle

trigone

16

transports urine from the bladder to the outside environment

Urethra

17

cup-shaped sack lined by a simple squamous epithelium (parietal surface) and specialized cells called podocytes (visceral surface) that participate in the filtration process; receives the filtrate which then passes on to the PCTs

Bowman's Capsule

18

cup-like structures receiving urine from the collecting ducts where it passes on to the renal pelvis and ureter

calyces

19

nephrons with loops of Henle that do not extend into the renal medulla

cortical nephrons

20

portions of the nephron distal to the loop of Henle that receive hyposmotic filtrate from the loop of Henle and empty into collecting ducts

distal convoluted tubule

21

arteriole carrying blood from the glomerulus to the capillary beds around the convoluted tubules and loop of Henle; portion of the portal system

efferent arteriole

22

tuft of capillaries surrounded by Bowman’s capsule; filters the blood based on size

glomerulus

23

nephrons adjacent to the border of the cortex and medulla with loops of Henle that extend into the renal medulla

juxtamedullary nephrons

24

descending and ascending portions between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules; those of cortical nephrons do not extend into the medulla, whereas those of juxtamedullary nephrons do extend into the medulla

descending loop of henle

25

functional units of the kidney that carry out all filtration and modification to produce urine; consist of renal corpuscles, proximal and distal convoluted tubules, and descending and ascending loops of Henle; drain into collecting ducts

nephrons

26

inner region of kidney containing the renal pyramids

medulla

27

second capillary bed of the renal portal system; surround the proximal and distal convoluted tubules; associated with the vasa recta

peritublar capillaries

28

tortuous tubules receiving filtrate from Bowman’s capsule; most active part of the nephron in reabsorption and secretion

proximal convoluted tubules

29

extensions of the renal cortex into the renal medulla; separates the renal pyramids; contains blood vessels and connective tissues

renal columns

30

consists of the glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule

renal corpuscle

31

outer part of kidney containing all of the nephrons; some nephrons have loops of Henle extending into the medulla

renal cortex

32

adipose tissue between the renal fascia and the renal capsule that provides protective cushioning to the kidney

renal fat pad

33

recessed medial area of the kidney through which the renal artery, renal vein, ureters, lymphatics, and nerves pass

renal hilum

34

medullary area of the renal pyramids where collecting ducts empty urine into the minor calyces

renal papillae

35

medullary area of the renal pyramids where collecting ducts empty urine into the minor calyces

renal pyramids

36

branches of the efferent arterioles that parallel the course of the loops of Henle and are continuous with the peritubular capillaries; with the glomerulus, form a portal system

vasa recta

37

protein produced by the enzymatic action of renin on angiotensinogen; inactive precursor of angiotensin II

Angiotensin 1

38

protein produced by the enzymatic action of ACE on inactive angiotensin I; actively causes vasoconstriction and stimulates aldosterone release by the adrenal cortex

Angiotensin 2

39

formed by pedicels of podocytes; substances filter between the pedicels based on size

filtration slits

40

located at the juncture of the DCT and the afferent and efferent arterioles of the glomerulus; plays a role in the regulation of renal blood flow and GFR

juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)

41

modified smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole; secretes renin in response to a drop in blood pressure

juxtaglomerular cell

42

cells found in the part of the DCT forming the JGA; sense Na+ concentration in the forming urine

macula densa

43


contractile cells found in the glomerulus; can contract or relax to regulate filtration rate

mesangial

44

finger-like projections of podocytes surrounding glomerular capillaries; interdigitate to form a filtration membrane

pedicels

45

cells forming finger-like processes; form the visceral layer of Bowman’s capsule; pedicels of the podocytes interdigitate to form a filtration membrane

podocytes

46

enzyme produced by juxtaglomerular cells in response to decreased blood pressure or sympathetic nervous activity; catalyzes the conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin I

renin