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Flashcards in Urinary AgEdNet powerpoint Deck (17):
1

Function of the Kidneys 

eliminate the byproducts of metabolism through the urine 

2

Kidney location 

-dorsal part of the abdomen 

- on each side of the spine 

- behind the peritoneum 

3

Peritoneum 

the thin sheet of connective tissue that lines the abdominal cavity 

4

Structure of the Kidney

- reddish-brown 

- bean shaped 

- smooth 

- contains renal artery and vein and ureter 

5

Ureter structure

- tubular structure 

-walls of contractions

6

Ureter function 

Carries urine from the kidney to the bladder 

- series of contraction push urine from kidney to bladder 

 

7

Peristalsis 

Series of contractions push urine from kidney to bladder 

8

Bladder Structure 

- hollow organ 

- lined by epithelium 

- wall contains smooth muslce that contract to empty urine 

- can stretch to hold more urine 

9

Urethra function 

carries urine to the outside of the body 

 

10

Urethra structure 

- has muscular wall that helps control the flow of urine 

- femal urethra shorter and more prone to bladder infection 

- male urethra longer and more prone to obstruction from bladder stones 

11

Primary function of renal system 

  • To excrete nitrogen-containing wastes
  • When proteins and amino acids are broken down – ammonia is formed (very toxic)
  • Liver converts ammonia to urea (less toxic)

12

How are stones formed?

  • Nucleotides are broken down to uric acid.
  • Excess uric acid can crystallize and form bladder stones.

13

Stones treatment 

  • A special diet can limit amounts of uric acid.
  • Medication can also help.

14

How to kidneys regulate water balance 

  • Kidneys can conserve water when needed:
    • Limited water available to drink
    • Disease (vomiting or diarrhea)

15

What is renal failure?

Kidneys fail to remove waste

  • Electrolyte, pH and water regulation are not balanced
  • Kidneys can no longer function normally

16

What are symptoms of renal failure?

Weight loss

Poor appetite

Drinking more water

More urination

Lethargic

Vomiting/diarrhea

17

What can be done for renal failure?

Old age – not much

Increase fluids

Restrict protein and phosphorus in diet

Kidney transplant expensive and not
commonly done