Urinary & Renal Functions Flashcards Preview

WPP II Urinary & Respiratory > Urinary & Renal Functions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary & Renal Functions Deck (62):
1

Glomerular can be found in which part of the kidney?

Cortex

2

The primary function of the kidney is what?

Filter blood and remove waster (metabolites)

3

Three functions of Renal System?

1. Urine Formation
2. Regulation of Blood
3. Endocrine function

4

Afferent Arteriole bring blood to or from the Glomerular?

TO

5

Efferent Arteriole brings blood TO or FROM Glomerular?

FROM

6

True or False: Urea and Uric acid are Metabolites?

True: from protein catabolism (break down).

7

True or False: Creatinine is a Metabolite?

True: From muscle metabolism.

8

High levels of BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) mean what about kidney function?

BUN is high – kidney not functioning

9

Of these four things used for assessment of renal function which is the best overall index of kidney function?
1. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
2. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
3. Serum creatinine
4. Urinalysis

1. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best overall index of kidney function .

10

What does GFR measure?

*GFR – measures creatine clearance. How much is filtered. Higher # is better. Creatine is a metabolite from muscle breakdown.

11

Is BUN high or low if patient has Azotemia?

if patient has Azotemia BUN is high. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen )

12

What is "obligatory water loss"? Or - the minimum amount of urine elimination daily.

500 mL.

13

Measurements of Chronic Kidney Failure or Acute?
- Oliguric (100–500 mL/day)
- Anuric (<100 mL/day)

Acute. Acute vs Chronic (result is the same difference is just timeline)

14

Two ways to check urine for issues?

- Urine appearance and color (for example, clear, cloudy, turbid, layered; pale yellow, dark yellow)

- Urine pH (the acidity or alkalinity

15

What does a Intravenous Pyelography (IVP) check for?

A test for kidneys...injectable

IV injection of x-ray contrast media.

The contrast is removed from the bloodstream via the kidneys, and the contrast media becomes visible on x-rays almost immediately after injection.

X-rays are taken at specific time intervals to capture the contrast as it travels through the different parts of the urinary system.

16

Conditions of kidney disfunction?

Hematuria = blood in urine (cancer) >5 RBC
Pyuria = >5 WBC
Proteinuria = Protein in urine
Hypertension
Metabolic Acidosis
BPH – can cause Nocturia
Frequency = edema and hypertension / uti’s /
Pain = UIT’s / Stone or obstruction

17

Normal urine output amount?

500ml (angoric is less than 500ml)

18

3 signs of Acute Renal Failure?

1. BUN – NITROGEN IS HIGH
2. GFR – decreased
3. Decreased urine output – 500 is normal (oligoric is less than 500, anoric less than 100)

19

How can hypertension and diabetes both damage kidneys?

1. Hypertenson: increased pressure can damage tubes

2. Diabetes: too much glucose injures arteries..by forming deposits, blood circulation is the main problem

20

Glumerol Nefritis is intrarenal or postrera?

Intra-renal

21

BPH (Benign prostatic hyperplasia) are Pre-renal / Intra-renal / Post-renal / Bladder infection / Kidney stones are found:
1. Pre-renal
2. Intra-renal
3. Post-renal

3. Post-renal
Most common cause is BPH (Benign prostatic hyperplasia) Obstruction: pelvis, bladder,urethra anywhere

22

Pre-renal, Intra-renal or Post-renal?
LOW BLOOD VOLUME
Volume Loss:
- Hypotension
- Trauma
- Heart Failure: (damages blood supply) / - - Hemorrage /
- Heart Failure : Edema / Sudden sweating (attack)

Pre-renal
The perfusion (passage of) of fluids is compromised.

23

Strep throat can cause this "itis"

Glumerolonephritis (intrarenal)
- GFR shows LOW in both ARF and CRF)
- Urine is dark
- Urine is scanty
- Oliguria (100-500ml)

24

Pre / Intra /Post-renal?
1. Hypotension: due to congestive heart failure or hemorrhage
2. Hypovolemia : Hypovolemia from either renal loss or extrarenal loss
3. Vasoconstriction
4. Rhabdomyelosis

Pre-renal

25

Parenchyma is damaged at what stage of acute kidney failure? Pre / Intra / Post

Intra-renal ARF: the functional tissue of the organ is damaged at this stage.

26

What is a Nephron?

A glomerulus and its associated tubule, through which the glomerular filtrate passes before emerging as urine.

27

What is Pyuria?

Bacteria in the urine. >5 WBC indicates a problem.

28

What is hematuria?

Blood in urine. >5 RBC indicates a problem.

29

Acute Renal Failure:
1. Happens over what timeframe?
2. Shows increased levels of?
3. Decreased levels of?

1. Hours to Days
2. Bun and Creatine
3. Decreased GFR & Urine Output

30

Basic causes of:
1. Pre-Renal ARF
2. Intra-Renal ARF
3. Pos-Renal ARF

1. Perfusion
(i.e: Hypotension, passage of fluid/blood through the circulatory system compromised)

2. Parenchyma Damage
(i.e: Glomerulonephritis, tissue of organ is damaged)

3. Obstruction
(ie: Tumor, stones)

31

Chronic Renal Failure:
1. Happens over what timeframe?

Answer: Months to years

32

What are the two major causes of Acute Tubular Necrosis?

1. Ischemia
2. Toxin

33

1. What is ischemia?
2. Give an example of a cause?

1. An inadequate blood supply to an organ.
2. Hypertension / Dehydration / Prolonged Prerenal state /

34

What typically cause AIN (Acute Interstitial Nephritis?

Answer: Drugs (i.e: Allopurinol for Gout)

35

What can cause Glomerulonephritis?

Strep. Patients are often Hypertensive & edematous (around eyes)

36

Chronic Renal Failure is detected how?

1. Diminished GFR for 3 mos.
2. Uremia (a raised level in the blood of urea and other nitrogenous waste)

37

End StageRenal Disease (ESRD) - two most common causes?

1. Diabetes
2. Hypertension

38

Signs of Uremia?

1. Confusion
2. HTN
3. GI: Nausea, unintentional weight loss, metallic taste
4. Skin pruritus, dry, crystals
5. Endocrine: Hyperlipidemia
6. Hematological: anemia
7. Muscle Cramping
8. SOB
9. Dyspnea

39

Treatment for (ESRD) End Stage Renal Disease?

1. Dialysis
2. Renal Transplant

40

What are calculi?

answer: Urinary stones

41

Who do Urinary Stones more frequently affect?

Men 3:1

42

What can be the cause of Urinary Stones?

1. Diet & Fluid intake
2. Sodium
3. Protein

43

Most common type of Urinary Stone?

Calcium Stones (seen on X-ray)

44

Describe pain of Urinary stones?

1. Sudden
2. Localized to flank
3. Patient's are constantly moving

45

What are diagnostic tools for Urinary Stones?

1. Imaging:
- X-ray / Ultrasound / IVP / CT (Computed Tomography)

2. Urinalysis might be good for early detection

3. Presentation is primary diagnostic tool

46

Irritative Voiding Symptoms

1. urgency
2. dysuria
3. Frequency
4. Nocturne

47

Obstructive Voiding Symptoms

1. Hesitancy
2. Decreased force
3. Intermittent

48

Types of Incontinence

1. Urinary incontinence
2. Total Incontinence
3. Stress Incontinence
4. Urge Incontinence
5. Overflow Incontinence

49

Distinguish:
1. Urinary incontinence
2. Total Incontinence
3. Stress Incontinence
4. Urge Incontinence
5. Overflow Incontinence

Differences:
1. involuntary
2. all loss all the time
3. D/T cough, sneeze, pressure
4. Preceded by strong urge
5. Chronic retention (causing overflow)

50

What is Cystitis an Infection of - or causing?
1. Ureter Inflammation
2. Urethra Inflammation
3. Bladder Inflammation

3. Bladder Inflammation

51

True or False: Patients with Cystitis have fevers?

False

52

True or False: Frequency and Urgency with scant amts. can be a sign of Cystitis?

True

53

True or False: Hematuria and Pyuria in urine can be a sign of Cystitis?

True

54

Treatments for Cystitis?

1. Anti-microbial
2. Local anesthetic - Pyuria (orange urine)
3. Hydration

55

BPH stand for what condition?

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

56

BPH is benign or malignant?

Benign

57

True or False: BPH is age related?

True

58

True or False: BPH is the most common cause of benign tumor in men?

True

59

Treatment for BPH?

1. Watchful waiting
2. Alpha-adrenergic Blocking Agent
3. 5 - Alpha Reductase Inhibitors
4. Surgery

60

Diagnosis of BPH is based on what typically?

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
Also:
- Digital Rectal Exam
- Urinalysis
- Serum (PSA)

61

Signs and Symptoms of BPH?

- Difficulty starting urine stream
- Decreased urinary force
- Incomplete emptying, fx, nocturia

62

Most commonly described medication for BPH?

Alpha-Adrenergic Blocking Agent
(5-Alpha-Reductase Inhibitors, reduce size of prostrate gland)