Flashcards in Urinary system-2 Deck (18):
what does the cortical labrythin consist of?
cortical labyrinth: renal corpuscles, convoluting tubules: PCT&DCT, collecting tubules
medullary rays: straight tubules (straight proximal, straight distal) and collecting ducts ("Stripes") that extend from base of pyramid into cortex
which projects between the medullary pyramids and resides within and is part of medulla? what does this structure also include?
Renal column of Bertin: straight tubules, collecting ducts
what does the uriniferous tubule consist of?
which is the structural and functional unit of kidney?
nephron + collecting tubule
Nephron is the structural/functional unit of kidney
what is the renal corpuscle consist of?
Renal corpuscle which contains:
-bowman's capsule--visceral covers glomerulus
what is composed of podocytes? what are the components of the podocytes?
visceral layer of bowman's capsule:
primary (major) processes, secondary processes (pedicels)--filtration slits have a slit diaphragm
-Fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillary
-basal lamina--made of visceral layer of bowman's capsule (produced by endothelium and podocytes)
-visceral layer of bowman capsule (composed of podocytes)
mutation in nephrin gene
mutations will cause mutation to nephrin of diaphragm-->leakage-->congenital nephrotic syndrome-->proteins lost into bowman space--->massive porteinuria--->edema
what makes up the PCT
-simple cuboidal epithelium
-microvilli "striated borders"/brush borders
Distal tubule is made up of what
whats the diff between DCT and PCT?
distal straight tubule: thick ascending limb of loop of henle--has MORE mitochondria than PCT
-low cuboidal epithelium
Distal convoluted tubule: much shorter and less torturous than PCT, wide clear lumen
DCT: clear lumen, cells are smaller, more cells
PCT: striated border
Role of Intraglomerular Mesangial cell
where is it located?
phagocytic, resorbs basal lamina--act as "filter"
-cleans up saturated parts of the basement membrane
embedded in basement membrane/ basal lamina, and is located between glomerular capillaries
mutation in gene encoding for type IV collagen
cause alports syndrome (hereditary glomerulonephritis)-->hematuria proteinuria--> proteins that can leak into bowmans space which could lead to renal failure
how is the collecting ducts of Bellini formed
formed as several medullary collecting tubules converge.
~20 ducts of bellini open in renal papilla (apex)of each renal pyramid.-->
ducts opening form the area cribrosa "strainer" of renal papilla.
what does the Juxtaglomerular apparatus consist of? what are their characteristics?
macula densa: dense spot of DT
-modified smooth muscle cells in tunica media of the AFFERENT glomerular arteriole
where does the minor calyx receive urine from?
what is lined by?
where does major calyx receive urine?
renal papilla of single renal pyramid
major calyx: may receive urine from up 4 minor calyx
urinary bladder compostion
Mucosa: transitional epithelium + lamina propria
Muscularis: inner longitudinal layer, outer circular layer, outermost longitudinal layer
what are the segments of the male urethra
penile urethra: located in the corpus spongiosum
- bulbourethral glands of cowper
Prostate gland composition: where did it arise from
what layers is it composed of? which is the main prostatic layer?
where does majority of the cancer arise?
-CT stroma: arises from capsule
-tubuloalveolar glands arranged into 3 concentric layers:
-peripheral layer (main prostatic gland--largest)-majority of cancers arise here