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Flashcards in Urinary system-2 Deck (18):

what does the cortical labrythin consist of?
Medullary rays?

cortical labyrinth: renal corpuscles, convoluting tubules: PCT&DCT, collecting tubules

medullary rays: straight tubules (straight proximal, straight distal) and collecting ducts ("Stripes") that extend from base of pyramid into cortex


which projects between the medullary pyramids and resides within and is part of medulla? what does this structure also include?

Renal column of Bertin: straight tubules, collecting ducts


what does the uriniferous tubule consist of?

which is the structural and functional unit of kidney?

nephron + collecting tubule

Nephron is the structural/functional unit of kidney


what is the renal corpuscle consist of?

Renal corpuscle which contains:

-bowman's capsule--visceral covers glomerulus


what is composed of podocytes? what are the components of the podocytes?

visceral layer of bowman's capsule:
primary (major) processes, secondary processes (pedicels)--filtration slits have a slit diaphragm


Filtration Barrier

-Fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillary

-basal lamina--made of visceral layer of bowman's capsule (produced by endothelium and podocytes)

-visceral layer of bowman capsule (composed of podocytes)


mutation in nephrin gene

mutations will cause mutation to nephrin of diaphragm-->leakage-->congenital nephrotic syndrome-->proteins lost into bowman space--->massive porteinuria--->edema


what makes up the PCT

-simple cuboidal epithelium
-microvilli "striated borders"/brush borders
-basement membrane*


Distal tubule is made up of what

whats the diff between DCT and PCT?

distal straight tubule: thick ascending limb of loop of henle--has MORE mitochondria than PCT
-low cuboidal epithelium
-zonulade occludentes

Distal convoluted tubule: much shorter and less torturous than PCT, wide clear lumen

major differences:
DCT: clear lumen, cells are smaller, more cells

PCT: striated border


Role of Intraglomerular Mesangial cell

where is it located?

phagocytic, resorbs basal lamina--act as "filter"
-cleans up saturated parts of the basement membrane

embedded in basement membrane/ basal lamina, and is located between glomerular capillaries


mutation in gene encoding for type IV collagen

cause alports syndrome (hereditary glomerulonephritis)-->hematuria proteinuria--> proteins that can leak into bowmans space which could lead to renal failure


how is the collecting ducts of Bellini formed

formed as several medullary collecting tubules converge.

~20 ducts of bellini open in renal papilla (apex)of each renal pyramid.-->
ducts opening form the area cribrosa "strainer" of renal papilla.


what does the Juxtaglomerular apparatus consist of? what are their characteristics?

macula densa: dense spot of DT
JG cells

-modified smooth muscle cells in tunica media of the AFFERENT glomerular arteriole
-contains renin


where does the minor calyx receive urine from?

what is lined by?

where does major calyx receive urine?

renal papilla of single renal pyramid

transitional epithelium

major calyx: may receive urine from up 4 minor calyx


urinary bladder compostion

Mucosa: transitional epithelium + lamina propria

Muscularis: inner longitudinal layer, outer circular layer, outermost longitudinal layer


what are the segments of the male urethra

prostatic urethra
membranous urethra
penile urethra: located in the corpus spongiosum
- bulbourethral glands of cowper


Prostate gland composition: where did it arise from

what layers is it composed of? which is the main prostatic layer?

where does majority of the cancer arise?

-chestnut shaped
-CT capsule
-CT stroma: arises from capsule

-tubuloalveolar glands arranged into 3 concentric layers:
-mucosal layer
-submucosal layer
-peripheral layer (main prostatic gland--largest)-majority of cancers arise here


what gets calcified with aging?

corpora amylacea (calcified prostatic concretion)