Flashcards in urinary system Deck (34):
Basic functions of the kidney are ?
1) fluid balance 2)Electrolytes 3)Blood pressure control 4)Wastes 5)Erythropoietin 6) Absorb fuels 7) Acid base balance
The kidneys perform as an endocrine gland secreting ??
Renin Erythropoietin Prostaglandins
What is predominantly located in the cortex ?
The medulla is mainly composed of ?
The medulla has a shape of a _______ ?. The blunted tip is called ________ ? that is surrounded by ______?
Inverted pyramid, the blunted tip is called papilla, and is surrounded by the minor calices
The collecting ducts are formed of ?
Invagination of the papillas epithelium
The cortex is organized as ?The
Lobules and contains : Nephrons Vascular elements Stroma
The renal artery enters the papilla and gives rise to ?
Interlobar arteries from the kidney give rise to ?
Intralobular arteries are also called ?
Afferent arterioles that enter each glomeruli
How is the sequence of vessels in a glomerulus ?
Afferent arteriole-capillary bed-efferent arteriole-capillary bed- vein
Which is the name of the functional unit of the kidney ?
Nephron 1-1.3 millions in each kidney
Uriniferous tubule is called to ?
Nephron + collecting duct
How many layers does the Bowmans capsule has ?
Parietal layer Visceral layer( Podocytes )
The sum of a glomerulus of capillaries and a bowmans capsules is called ?
The parietal layer is continuos with ?
Podocytes have characteristic _________ ? and share a _________?
Primary and secondary foot processes. and share a basal lamina with the endothelium.
Which is the first filtration barrier that plasma encounters in the Endothelium- Podocyte complex ?
The basal lamina
The endothelium - Podocyte complex is formed by ?
Fenestrated endothelium Shared basal lamina Diaphragms of podocytes
Which are the major proteins forming podocytes ?
Podosyn Nephrin Cadherins
Nephrin absence causes ?
incapacity of podocytes forming foot and diaphragms causing congenital nephrotic syndrome or Nephrosis 1
How podocytes prevent from negatively charged components like albumin from crossing the barrier ?
They have negative charges
Proximal is the continuation of ______? and is formed by ______?
Parietal layer formed by simple cuboidal cells with microvilli and high content of mitochondria involved in active transport .
The loop of henle is ?
The continuation of the PCT is narrower , has an ascending and descending segment.
The loop of henle is important due to its capacity of ?
Counter current multiplier capacity
The distal convoluted tubule is ?
The continuation of henle and connects to collecting ducts.
The distal convoluted tubule is important because ?
detects Na levels by their specialized cells of the macula densa.
Collecting ducts are formed by which type of cells ?
Principal and intercalated cells
Principal cells of the intercalated ducts respond to ?
Mesangial cells are located ______? and they aid in ______?
Between capillaries and aid in the maintenance of the basal lamina.
The juxtaglomerular complex is formed by ?
The Juxtaglomerular apparatus Macula densa Mesangial cells
Juxtaglomerular cells are ?
modified smooth muscle cells that secrete renin
Macula densa cells of the JGA are important because ?
They sense the levels of Na in DCT