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Flashcards in urinary system Deck (34):
1

Basic functions of the kidney are ?

1) fluid balance 2)Electrolytes 3)Blood pressure control 4)Wastes 5)Erythropoietin 6) Absorb fuels 7) Acid base balance

2

The kidneys perform as an endocrine gland secreting ??

Renin Erythropoietin Prostaglandins

3

What is predominantly located in the cortex ?

Glomeruli

4

The medulla is mainly composed of ?

Collecting ducts

5

The medulla has a shape of a _______ ?. The blunted tip is called ________ ? that is surrounded by ______?

Inverted pyramid, the blunted tip is called papilla, and is surrounded by the minor calices

6

The collecting ducts are formed of ?

Invagination of the papillas epithelium

7

The cortex is organized as ?The

Lobules and contains : Nephrons Vascular elements Stroma

8

The renal artery enters the papilla and gives rise to ?

Interlobar arteries

9

Interlobar arteries from the kidney give rise to ?

Arcuate arteries

10

Intralobular arteries are also called ?

Afferent arterioles that enter each glomeruli

11

How is the sequence of vessels in a glomerulus ?

Afferent arteriole-capillary bed-efferent arteriole-capillary bed- vein

12

Which is the name of the functional unit of the kidney ?

Nephron 1-1.3 millions in each kidney

13

Uriniferous tubule is called to ?

Nephron + collecting duct

14

How many layers does the Bowmans capsule has ?

Parietal layer Visceral layer( Podocytes )

15

The sum of a glomerulus of capillaries and a bowmans capsules is called ?

Renal corpuscle

16

The parietal layer is continuos with ?

The PCT

17

Podocytes have characteristic _________ ? and share a _________?

Primary and secondary foot processes. and share a basal lamina with the endothelium.

18

Which is the first filtration barrier that plasma encounters in the Endothelium- Podocyte complex ?

The basal lamina

19

The endothelium - Podocyte complex is formed by ?

Fenestrated endothelium Shared basal lamina Diaphragms of podocytes

20

Which are the major proteins forming podocytes ?

Podosyn Nephrin Cadherins

21

Nephrin absence causes ?

incapacity of podocytes forming foot and diaphragms causing congenital nephrotic syndrome or Nephrosis 1

22

How podocytes prevent from negatively charged components like albumin from crossing the barrier ?

They have negative charges

23

Proximal is the continuation of ______? and is formed by ______?

Parietal layer formed by simple cuboidal cells with microvilli and high content of mitochondria involved in active transport .

24

The loop of henle is ?

The continuation of the PCT is narrower , has an ascending and descending segment.

25

The loop of henle is important due to its capacity of ?

Counter current multiplier capacity

26

The distal convoluted tubule is ?

The continuation of henle and connects to collecting ducts.

27

The distal convoluted tubule is important because ?

detects Na levels by their specialized cells of the macula densa.

28

Collecting ducts are formed by which type of cells ?

Principal and intercalated cells

29

Principal cells of the intercalated ducts respond to ?

Aldosterone

30

Mesangial cells are located ______? and they aid in ______?

Between capillaries and aid in the maintenance of the basal lamina.

31

The juxtaglomerular complex is formed by ?

The Juxtaglomerular apparatus Macula densa Mesangial cells

32

Juxtaglomerular cells are ?

modified smooth muscle cells that secrete renin

33

Macula densa cells of the JGA are important because ?

They sense the levels of Na in DCT

34

Erythropoietin is produced by which cells ?

Cortical and medullary fibroblasts