Flashcards in Urinary system Deck (35)
The removal of ______ by the kidneys is essential in the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.
fluid and waste
the kidney is an encapsulated, lobulated, retroperitoneal structure located on the
posterior abdominal wall
The outer cortex contains the ______, (the glomerulus, Bowman’ s capsule) and _______.
renal corpuscles; convoluted tubules
Each collecting duct and the nephrons it drains make up a ______.
The medulla and medullary rays contain the
straight tubules and loop of Henle and collecting duct
There are about 2,000,000 nephrons in the adult kidney. The nephron begins at the corpuscle where urine is initially filtered. The urine passes to the _____ to the proximal straight tubule then the thin segment of the _______ followed by the distal straight tubule, the distal convoluted tubule and onto the collecting tubule.
proximal convoluted tubule; loop of Henle
The kidney contains cortical nephrons, where the glomerulus is high in the cortex. These have ____ of Henle. And juxtamedullary nephrons, where the glomerulus is ______. These posses _____. A third type are the intermediate nephrons (with intermediate length loops).
short loops; close to the medulla; long loops
The filtration begins at the ______ and located in the cortex. Exchange also occurs in the medulla where the ______ is set up
glomerulus; counter current exchange system
The _______ changes as urine passes through the post glomerular tubular system to the papillary ducts into the minor calyx
The renal corpuscle contains the _____ (important in phagocytosis of excess basement membrane). Associated with this is also the afferent and efferent arterioles. The juxtaglomerular cells and the macula densa in the distal tubule.
glomerulus, visceral and parietal Bowman’s capsule and mesangial cells
The podocytes posses _____ between the processes are
foot processes (pedicels); filtration slits with a membrane
The filtration apparatus of the corpuscle is made up of
1) the endothelium of the capillaries, 2) glomerular basement membrane and 3) visceral layer of Bowman’s capsule made up of podocytes
The slit membrane is a _______.
The _______ is composed of collagen iv, laminin, fibronectin, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans.
semipermiable membrane; basement membrane
The layers of the basement membrane are the:
Lamina rara interna, rich in polyanions such as heparan sulfate, to block passage of charged (negative) molecules
Lamina rara externa, similar structure to the interna
Lamina densa, rich in collagen iv acts as a physical barrier
THE ____ BLOCKS PASSAGE OF PROTEINS LARGER THAN 70kd AND THE ____ BLOCK MOLECULES OF SMALLER SIZE
The slit membrane blocks _______.
The fenestrated capillary endothelium blocks passage of _______.
bulk diffusion; cellular elements
After components pass through the filtration apparatus they enter Bowman’s space as ______. Ions, molecules and water pass through the epithelium of the various types of tubules to ___.
primary filtrate; concentrate the urine
Many of the pathological conditions involving the kidney occur at the level of the ______. These include alterations in the basement membrane (Goodpasture’s syndrome, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) or fusion of the foot processes (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) as well as other disease states (lupus nephritis)
The renal corpuscle also contains mesangeal cells. The mesangeal cells are contained within the ______.
basement membrane of the endothelial cells
The functions of mesangeal cells include:
phagocytosis of the proteins in the gbm, structural support and synthesis of growth factors and interluekins
The jg apparatus is made up of the
jg cells, the macula densa and some mesangeal cells.
The macula densa is contained within the ________ as it passes the vascular pole. The function of these cells along with the jg cells in the afferent arteriole is to help
distal tubule; maintain homeostasis
Jg cells contain ____ which converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin 1. Which is converted, in the lung to ______. This hormone stimulates the release of _______ from the zona glomerulosa.
renin; angiotensin 2; aldosterone
Aldosterone acts on the collecting ducts to increase
resorption of na+ and water to increase blood volume
Angiotensin 2 is also a
The proximal convoluted tubule is responsible for absorption of
70-80% of the initial filtrate
The specializations of the proximal convoluted tubule cells include
These cells absorb amino acids, proteins, sodium, sugars and polypeptides.
apical microvilli (brush border), tight junctions, and basal striations which contain mitochondria.
The proximal straight tubule leads into
the thin loop of Henle
The thin descending limb is permeable to ________ while the ascending loop is impermeable to ______
The majority of the epithelium of this structure is
salt and water; water; simple squamous