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Flashcards in Urinary system Deck (35)
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1

The removal of ______ by the kidneys is essential in the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

fluid and waste

2

the kidney is an encapsulated, lobulated, retroperitoneal structure located on the

posterior abdominal wall

3

The outer cortex contains the ______, (the glomerulus, Bowman’ s capsule) and _______.

renal corpuscles; convoluted tubules

4

Each collecting duct and the nephrons it drains make up a ______.

renal lobule

5

The medulla and medullary rays contain the

straight tubules and loop of Henle and collecting duct

6

There are about 2,000,000 nephrons in the adult kidney. The nephron begins at the corpuscle where urine is initially filtered. The urine passes to the _____ to the proximal straight tubule then the thin segment of the _______ followed by the distal straight tubule, the distal convoluted tubule and onto the collecting tubule.

proximal convoluted tubule; loop of Henle

7

The kidney contains cortical nephrons, where the glomerulus is high in the cortex. These have ____ of Henle. And juxtamedullary nephrons, where the glomerulus is ______. These posses _____. A third type are the intermediate nephrons (with intermediate length loops).

short loops; close to the medulla; long loops

8

The filtration begins at the ______ and located in the cortex. Exchange also occurs in the medulla where the ______ is set up

glomerulus; counter current exchange system

9

The _______ changes as urine passes through the post glomerular tubular system to the papillary ducts into the minor calyx

epithelium

10

The renal corpuscle contains the _____ (important in phagocytosis of excess basement membrane). Associated with this is also the afferent and efferent arterioles. The juxtaglomerular cells and the macula densa in the distal tubule.

glomerulus, visceral and parietal Bowman’s capsule and mesangial cells

11

The podocytes posses _____ between the processes are

foot processes (pedicels); filtration slits with a membrane

12

The filtration apparatus of the corpuscle is made up of

1) the endothelium of the capillaries, 2) glomerular basement membrane and 3) visceral layer of Bowman’s capsule made up of podocytes

13

The slit membrane is a _______.
The _______ is composed of collagen iv, laminin, fibronectin, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans.

semipermiable membrane; basement membrane

14

The layers of the basement membrane are the:

Lamina rara interna, rich in polyanions such as heparan sulfate, to block passage of charged (negative) molecules
Lamina rara externa, similar structure to the interna
Lamina densa, rich in collagen iv acts as a physical barrier

15

THE ____ BLOCKS PASSAGE OF PROTEINS LARGER THAN 70kd AND THE ____ BLOCK MOLECULES OF SMALLER SIZE

GBM; ANIONS

16

The slit membrane blocks _______.
The fenestrated capillary endothelium blocks passage of _______.

bulk diffusion; cellular elements

17

After components pass through the filtration apparatus they enter Bowman’s space as ______. Ions, molecules and water pass through the epithelium of the various types of tubules to ___.

primary filtrate; concentrate the urine

18

Many of the pathological conditions involving the kidney occur at the level of the ______. These include alterations in the basement membrane (Goodpasture’s syndrome, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) or fusion of the foot processes (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) as well as other disease states (lupus nephritis)

filtration apparatus

19

The renal corpuscle also contains mesangeal cells. The mesangeal cells are contained within the ______.

basement membrane of the endothelial cells

20

The functions of mesangeal cells include:

phagocytosis of the proteins in the gbm, structural support and synthesis of growth factors and interluekins

21

The jg apparatus is made up of the

jg cells, the macula densa and some mesangeal cells.

22

The macula densa is contained within the ________ as it passes the vascular pole. The function of these cells along with the jg cells in the afferent arteriole is to help

distal tubule; maintain homeostasis

23

Jg cells contain ____ which converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin 1. Which is converted, in the lung to ______. This hormone stimulates the release of _______ from the zona glomerulosa.

renin; angiotensin 2; aldosterone

24

Aldosterone acts on the collecting ducts to increase

resorption of na+ and water to increase blood volume

25

Angiotensin 2 is also a

vasoconstrictor

26

The proximal convoluted tubule is responsible for absorption of

70-80% of the initial filtrate

27

The specializations of the proximal convoluted tubule cells include
These cells absorb amino acids, proteins, sodium, sugars and polypeptides.

apical microvilli (brush border), tight junctions, and basal striations which contain mitochondria.

28

The proximal straight tubule leads into

the thin loop of Henle

29

The thin descending limb is permeable to ________ while the ascending loop is impermeable to ______
The majority of the epithelium of this structure is

salt and water; water; simple squamous

30

The loop of henle with the associated vasa recti forms the

countercurrent exchange system of the kidney