Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (56):
1

bean-shaped organ, about the size of a tightly clenched fist

located retroperitoneal, between the levels of the last thoracic and third lumbar vertebrae

kidneys

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_ kidney is lower than _

R
L

3

Layers of tissue that surrounds the kidneys

Renal Capsule
Adipose Capsule
Renal Fascia

4

deep layer composed of smooth transparent sheet of dense irregular connective tissue

Renal capsule

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middle layer composed of mass o fatty tissue surrounding the renal capsule

protects the kidneys from trauma and holds the kidneys in place within the abdominal cavity

Adipose capsule

6

superficial layer composed of thin layer of dense connective tissue that anchors the kidneys to the abdominal wall

Renal Fascia

7

superficial, smooth-textured reddish area

Renal cortex

8

deep, reddish-brown inner region that contains 8-18 cone-shaped renal pyramids

Renal medulla

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a triangular region in the medulla with a striped appearance

Renal pyramids

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towards the cortex

base of renal pyramids

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center of the kidney

apex of renal pyramids

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extension of the cortex-like tissues between the pyramids

Renal columns

13

cup-shaped areas that enclose the tip of the pyramids

Renal calyx

14

collect urine from the pyramids and into the renal pelvis

minor and major calyces

15

larger funnel formed by the union of calyces from all the pyramids and attached to the ureters where it empties the urine coming from the calyx

Renal pelvis

16

functional unit of the kidney
1.3 million/ kidney and irreparable

nephron

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two types of nephron

juxtamedullary nephron
cortical nephron

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situated close to cortex-medulla junction; loops of Henle and extends deep into the medulla

Juxtamedullary nephron

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situated almost entirely within the cortex and loops of Henle and do not extend into the medulla

cortical nephron

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Two parts of Nephron

Renal Corpuscle
Renal Tubules

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where blood plasma is filtered

Renal Corpuscle

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Components of Renal Corpuscle

Bowman's capsule
Glomerulus

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Functions of Urinary System

Excretion
Regulation of blood volume and pressure
Regulation of the concentration of solutes in the blood
Regulation of blood pH
Regulation of red blood cell synthesis
Vitamin D synthesis

23

Mass /knot of capillary loops at the beginning of each nephron

Glomerulus

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Double-walled epithelial cup that surrounds the glomerular capillaries

Bowman's capsule

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specialized cells present in glomerulus

podocytes

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where filtered fluid passes

Renal Tubules

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Sections of Renal Tubules

Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal Convoluted Tubule
Collecting Tubule

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portion of the nephron that extends from Bowman's capsule to the descending limb of Henle's loop

Proximal Convolute Tubule

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U-shaped part of the nephron extending from the proximal to distal tubule and consisting of descending and ascending limb

Loop of Henle

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tubule of the nephron that extends from the ascending limb o the loop of Henle

Distal Convoluted Tubule

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straight tubule that extends from the cortex of the kidney to the tip of the renal pyramid

Collecting Tubule

32

triangular-shaped portion of the urinary bladder located between the opening of the ureters and the opening of the urethra

Trigon

33

small tubes that carry urine from the renal pelvis of the kidneys to the posterior-inferior portion of the urinary bladder

Ureters

34

smooth, collapsible muscular sac located retroperitoneally in the pelvis just posterior to the symphysis pubis

temporary storage of urine with maximum capacity of 1000 ml

Urinary Bladder

35

3 layers of smooth muscle on the bladder wall

Detrusor muscles

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smooth muscle at the bladder-urethre junction in male that keeps urethra closed when urine is not being passed

Internal Urethral sphincter

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thin-walled tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside

Female 1-1.2 in
Male 8 in

Urethra

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skeletal muscle that surrounds the urethra as it extends to the pelvic wall

external urethral sphincter

39

capillaries in loop of henle

vasa recta

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composed mostly of water and contains organic waste product such as urea, uric acid and creatinine as well as excess ions ( Na, K, Cl, HCO3, H)

urine

41

Processes in Urine Formation

Filtration
Reabsorption

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movement of solutes and solvent through semi-permeable membrae from an area of greater pressure (glomerulus) to an area of lower pressure (bowman's capsule)

filtration

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cannot go through glomerulus

protein

44

fluid passes from glomerulus to bowman's capsule

filtrate

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fluid that enters the capsular space

renal filtrate

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fraction of blood plasma in the afferent arterioles of the kidneys that become glomerular filtrate

filtration fraction

47

the amount of filtrate formed in all renal corpuscles of bothe kidneys each minute (125 ml/min)

Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

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movement of water and solutes (glucose, amino acids and needed ions) from the filtrate across the peritubular capillaries back to the blood ( known as tubular reabsorption)

Reabsorption

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reabsorb solutes (active transport) and water (osmosis)

proximal tubules

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reabsorb solutes (diffusion) and water (osmosis)

descending limb of loop of Henle

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reabsorb solutes (diffusion) but not permeable to water

Ascending limb of loop of henle

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reabsorption controlled by hormone ADH

distal tubules and collecting ducts

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movements of solutes (ammonia, creatinine, some drugs) and ions (H,K) from the blood to peritubular capillaries or tubule cells into the filtrate for elimination in urine

secretion

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act of emptying the bladder
aka voiding
can be controlled by higher brain centers in the cerebrum which increases conscious desire to urinate

Micturition/Renal Reflex

55

Normal Characteristic of Urine

clear and pale to deep yellow
slightly aromatic; ammonia odor
slightly acidic (6)
1.001 - 1.035
MAX 1 liter