Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (60):
Location of the kidney?
Entrance into the kidney?
What structure is the first to collect urine?
Each minor calyx receives urine from
Which blood vessel conveys blood out of the nephron?
Blood vessel surrounds the loops of Henle?
Which of the following are NOT found in the glomerular filtrate?
- Uric acid
Protein. Too large to pass through pores in the glomerulus
Which muscle metabolism is a waste product and is eliminated by the kidneys?
Renal secretion of a compound occurs from what into the distal convoluted tubule.
Which of these is NOT usually secreted by the kidneys?
Compound used to access the function of the kidney at the level of the glomerulus is
Dieting or the utilization of excess lipids?
Vigorous exercise would release high amounts of what into the urine?
What causes urine to flow from the kidneys to the bladder?
Juxtaglomerular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete___when___
Renin when blood pressure drops
Most reabsorption occurs in
Proximal convoluted tubule (70%)
Why is inulin the best substance to use to measure renal clearance?
Inulin is neither reabsorbed nor actively secreted into the filtrate
Where is the external urethral sphincter located in males?
Within the urogenital diaphragm
Which structure is last in the sequence of urine flow?
Renal pyramids are located within
The striated appearance of the pyramids is caused by
Kidneys secrete___for the purpose of stimulating bone marrow activity
Which is the function of the renal system?
- Maintain blood pH
- Regulate blood pressure
- Control blood concentration
All of these. Kidneys filter blood and control its concentration of electrolytes, pH, water, waste, and CO2
How much of the cardiac output passes through the kidneys?
Which blood vessel delivers blood to cortex?
The renal corpuscle is comprised of a glomerulus and
Which section of the nephron is after the ascending limb of the loop of Henle?
Distal convoluted tubule
Last part of a nephron?
What area secretes renin into the blood?
Which has the highest concentration in the urine?
Which ion is reabsorbed in exchange for sodium?
What is the average glomerular filtration rate?
Which is usually NOT found in the urine?
Glucose. All of it is reabsorbed into bloodstream
How much urine is formed in 24 hrs?
Renin acts on ___to convert it to angiotensin I
Target of angiotensin II are blood vessels and___
Tubular reabsorption occurs from the nephron tubules into
Which of the following does not operate under a renal threshold mechanism?
The action of aldosterone is to increase
How much sodium is actively reabsorbed by the proximal segment of the nephron?
The countercurrent multiplier mechanism occurs at the
Loop of Henle
The fluid in the descending limb of Henle is___relative to the capillaries
Function of the countercurrent multiplier is to
Increase the concentration of NaCl
What affect does ADH have on urine output
Eating large amounts of meat will increase the levels of ___in the blood
Renal calculi (kidney stones) usually comprised of the following except
The mucosa of the bladder is comprised of
Which of these is under voluntary control?
External urethral sphincter
The micturition (urination) reflex is centered in the
The granular appearance of the renal cortex is due to the random distribution of
nephrons in this area
The final branches of the interlobular arteries rise to the ___that carry blood to the nephrons
Plasma & glomerular filtrate are virtually identical, but urine contains proportionally more
Which force favors filtration?
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
Which factor does not affect glomerular filtration rate?
Concentration of leukocytes in the blood
The outermost structure of a kidney is
What is the main factor that causes urine to enter the urinary bladder?
What is the main factor that promotes bladder infections in the female?
Length of urethra
Which system functions in the excretion of soluble nitrogenous wastes?
Structure which receives the filtrate from the glomerulus is the