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Anatomy & Physiology II > Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (60):
1

Location of the kidney?

Retroperitoneal space

2

Entrance into the kidney?

Hilum

3

What structure is the first to collect urine?

Calyx

4

Each minor calyx receives urine from

Renal papillae

5

Which blood vessel conveys blood out of the nephron?

Interlobular vein

6

Blood vessel surrounds the loops of Henle?

Vasa recta

7

Which of the following are NOT found in the glomerular filtrate?
- Glucose
- Protein
- Uric acid
- Creatinine

Protein. Too large to pass through pores in the glomerulus

8

Which muscle metabolism is a waste product and is eliminated by the kidneys?

Creatinine

9

Renal secretion of a compound occurs from what into the distal convoluted tubule.

Peritubular capillaries

10

Which of these is NOT usually secreted by the kidneys?
- Creatine
- Creatinine
- H+
- Penicillin

Creatine

11

Compound used to access the function of the kidney at the level of the glomerulus is

Inulin

12

Dieting or the utilization of excess lipids?

Ketone

13

Vigorous exercise would release high amounts of what into the urine?

Albumin

14

What causes urine to flow from the kidneys to the bladder?

Peristalsis

15

Juxtaglomerular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete___when___

Renin when blood pressure drops

16

Most reabsorption occurs in

Proximal convoluted tubule (70%)

17

Why is inulin the best substance to use to measure renal clearance?

Inulin is neither reabsorbed nor actively secreted into the filtrate

18

Where is the external urethral sphincter located in males?

Within the urogenital diaphragm

19

Which structure is last in the sequence of urine flow?

Urethra

20

Renal pyramids are located within

Medulla

21

The striated appearance of the pyramids is caused by

Microtubules

22

Kidneys secrete___for the purpose of stimulating bone marrow activity

Erythropoietin

23

Which is the function of the renal system?
- Maintain blood pH
- Regulate blood pressure
- Control blood concentration
- All

All of these. Kidneys filter blood and control its concentration of electrolytes, pH, water, waste, and CO2

24

How much of the cardiac output passes through the kidneys?

25%

25

Which blood vessel delivers blood to cortex?

Interlobular artery

26

The renal corpuscle is comprised of a glomerulus and

Bowman's capsule

27

Which section of the nephron is after the ascending limb of the loop of Henle?

Distal convoluted tubule

28

Last part of a nephron?

Collecting duct

29

What area secretes renin into the blood?

Juxtaglomerular cells

30

Which has the highest concentration in the urine?

Sodium

31

Which ion is reabsorbed in exchange for sodium?

Potassium

32

What is the average glomerular filtration rate?

180L/day

33

Which is usually NOT found in the urine?

Glucose. All of it is reabsorbed into bloodstream

34

How much urine is formed in 24 hrs?

1.5 L

35

Renin acts on ___to convert it to angiotensin I

Angiotensinogen

36

Target of angiotensin II are blood vessels and___

Adrenal cortex

37

Tubular reabsorption occurs from the nephron tubules into

Peritubular capillaries

38

Which of the following does not operate under a renal threshold mechanism?

Sodium

39

The action of aldosterone is to increase

Sodium reabsorption

40

How much sodium is actively reabsorbed by the proximal segment of the nephron?

70%

41

The countercurrent multiplier mechanism occurs at the

Loop of Henle

42

The fluid in the descending limb of Henle is___relative to the capillaries

Hypertonic

43

Function of the countercurrent multiplier is to

Increase the concentration of NaCl

44

What affect does ADH have on urine output

Decreases

45

Eating large amounts of meat will increase the levels of ___in the blood

Urea

46

Renal calculi (kidney stones) usually comprised of the following except

Cholesterol

47

The mucosa of the bladder is comprised of

Transitional epithelium

48

Which of these is under voluntary control?

External urethral sphincter

49

The micturition (urination) reflex is centered in the

Sacral cord

50

The granular appearance of the renal cortex is due to the random distribution of

nephrons in this area

51

The final branches of the interlobular arteries rise to the ___that carry blood to the nephrons

Afferent arterioles

52

Plasma & glomerular filtrate are virtually identical, but urine contains proportionally more

Waste products

53

Which force favors filtration?

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

54

Which factor does not affect glomerular filtration rate?

Concentration of leukocytes in the blood

55

The outermost structure of a kidney is

Capsule

56

What is the main factor that causes urine to enter the urinary bladder?

Peristalsis

57

What is the main factor that promotes bladder infections in the female?

Length of urethra

58

Which system functions in the excretion of soluble nitrogenous wastes?

Urinary

59

Structure which receives the filtrate from the glomerulus is the

Bowman's capsule

60

In which area can the term urine be correctly used?

Minor calyx