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Flashcards in Urinary System A&P Deck (45):
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What are the eight different functions of the kidneys?
POPHIVES

P pH regulation
O osmolarity maintenance
P pressure regulation
H hormone production
I ion concentration regulation
V volume of blood
E excretion of waste
S sugar (glucose) levels

1

What two hormones do the kidneys produce?

Calcitriol and erythropoietin

2

What is the name of the part of the kidney where arteries, veins, nerves, ureter, and lymphatic vessels enter and exit the organ?

Renal hilum

3

Three layers of tissue surround each kidney. What are they, in order from most superficial to most deep?

Renal fascia, adipose capsule, and renal capsule

4

The parenchyma (functioning part) of the kidney is made up of the outer renal cortex and the inner renal _________ .

Medulla

5

About how many nephrons are in each kidney?

1 million

6

What structures collect urine from the papillary ducts?

Minor calyses

7

The renal artery branches into the segmental arteries, and then into the interlobar arteries, which become the arcuate arteries, which divide into the interlobular arteries.
What are the next three levels of blood vessels before the blood begins to exit via the network of veins?

Afferent arterioles, glomerular capillaries, and efferent arterioles

8

What are the two main parts of a nephron?

Renal corpuscle and renal tubule

9

What are the two main parts of the renal corpuscle?

Glomerulus and the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

10

What are the three main parts of the renal tubule?

Proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubule

11

What are the two kinds of nephrons?

Cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons

12

What is the name given to the blood vessels that supply the loop of Henle in the juxtamedullary nephrons?

Vasa recta

13

What kind of epithelium line the walls of the proximal convoluted tubule?

Simple cuboidal

14

What kind of epithelium lines the walls of the descending and thin ascending loop of Henle?

Simple squamous

15

What kind of epithelium lines the walls of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle?

Simple cuboidal to low columnar

16

What kind of epithelium lines the walls of most of the distal convoluted tubule?

Simple cuboidal

17

What kind of epithelium lines the walls of the last part of the distal convoluted tubule?

Simple cuboidal, consisting of principal and intercalated cells

18

What two particular cells make up the juxtaglomerular appartatus?

Macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells

19

What is the name given to the cells of the final part of the ascending loop of Henle, that are tightly packed together and make contact with the afferent arteriole?

Macula Densa

20

In the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts, what are the cells that have receptors for both antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone?

Principal cells

21

In the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts, what are the cells that play a role in the homeostasis of blood pH?

Intercalated cells

22

What is the name of the modified simple squamous epithelial cells that make up the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule?

Podocytes

23

What are the two processes of the nephron that contribute to the accumulation of water and solutes in tubular fluid?

Glomerular filtration and tubular secretion

24

What process of the nephron helps to conserve water and important solutes from unneeded excretion?

Tubular reabsorption

25

What cells, among the podocytes of the glomerulus regulate the surface area of the glomerular capillaries, thus regulating the glomerular filtration rate?

Mesangial cells

26

Net filtration pressure is determined by what three main pressures?

Glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure, capsular hydrostatic pressure, and blood colloid osmotic pressure

27

If the pressures in mmHg of GBHP, CHP, and BCOP are 55, 15, and 30, what is the net filtration pressure within the glomerular capsule?

55 mmHg - 15 mmHg - 30 mmHg =

10 mmHg

28

The amount of filtrate formed in all the renal corpuscles of both kidneys each minute is called what, and how many mL per minute is the average for an adult?

Glomerular filtration rate, 125mL

29

What are the three mechanisms that control the glomerular filtration rate?

Renal autoregulation, the neural regulation, and hormonal regulation

30

What are the two mechanisms that form the renal autoregulation mechanism?

Myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback

31

As blood pressure increases, afferent arterioles stretch resulting in the contraction of the smooth muscles of these vessels, reducing the amount of blood flow through the glomerular capillaries. The stimuli and response both occur within the kidney. What is the name of this mechanism?

Myogenic mechanism

32

The detection of higher concentrations of Na+ and Cl- by macula densa cells and the resulting inhibition of NO release in the juxtaglomerular apparatus is known as what?

Tubuloglomerular feedback

33

The decrease of the glomerular filtration rate due to norepinephrine activation of alpha one receptors in the smooth muscles of afferent arterioles in the kidneys is known as what?

Neural regulation

34

What hormone increases the glomerular filtration rate?

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) makes you pee

35

What hormone decreases the glomerular filtration rate?

Angiotensin II

36

Fluid leaking between tubular cells of the nephron is known as what?

Paracellular reabsorption

37

Water reabsorption with solutes such as sodium, chloride, or glucose is called what?

Obligatory water reabsorption

38

Water reabsorption that is capable of adapting according to need is termed what?

Facultative water reabsorption

39

About how many renal pyramids are found in each kidney?

8-18

40

What test is used to measure kidney function?

Plasma creatinine test

41

What is the normal pH level of human urine?

4.6-8.0

42

Aldosterone increases the level in the blood of what ion?

Sodium

43

Increases excretion of sodium (natriuresis)

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

44

Increases reabsorption of calcium ions

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)