Flashcards in Urinary System A&P Deck (45):
What are the eight different functions of the kidneys?
P pH regulation
O osmolarity maintenance
P pressure regulation
H hormone production
I ion concentration regulation
V volume of blood
E excretion of waste
S sugar (glucose) levels
What two hormones do the kidneys produce?
Calcitriol and erythropoietin
What is the name of the part of the kidney where arteries, veins, nerves, ureter, and lymphatic vessels enter and exit the organ?
Three layers of tissue surround each kidney. What are they, in order from most superficial to most deep?
Renal fascia, adipose capsule, and renal capsule
The parenchyma (functioning part) of the kidney is made up of the outer renal cortex and the inner renal _________ .
About how many nephrons are in each kidney?
What structures collect urine from the papillary ducts?
The renal artery branches into the segmental arteries, and then into the interlobar arteries, which become the arcuate arteries, which divide into the interlobular arteries.
What are the next three levels of blood vessels before the blood begins to exit via the network of veins?
Afferent arterioles, glomerular capillaries, and efferent arterioles
What are the two main parts of a nephron?
Renal corpuscle and renal tubule
What are the two main parts of the renal corpuscle?
Glomerulus and the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
What are the three main parts of the renal tubule?
Proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubule
What are the two kinds of nephrons?
Cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons
What is the name given to the blood vessels that supply the loop of Henle in the juxtamedullary nephrons?
What kind of epithelium line the walls of the proximal convoluted tubule?
What kind of epithelium lines the walls of the descending and thin ascending loop of Henle?
What kind of epithelium lines the walls of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle?
Simple cuboidal to low columnar
What kind of epithelium lines the walls of most of the distal convoluted tubule?
What kind of epithelium lines the walls of the last part of the distal convoluted tubule?
Simple cuboidal, consisting of principal and intercalated cells
What two particular cells make up the juxtaglomerular appartatus?
Macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells
What is the name given to the cells of the final part of the ascending loop of Henle, that are tightly packed together and make contact with the afferent arteriole?
In the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts, what are the cells that have receptors for both antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone?
In the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts, what are the cells that play a role in the homeostasis of blood pH?
What is the name of the modified simple squamous epithelial cells that make up the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule?
What are the two processes of the nephron that contribute to the accumulation of water and solutes in tubular fluid?
Glomerular filtration and tubular secretion
What process of the nephron helps to conserve water and important solutes from unneeded excretion?
What cells, among the podocytes of the glomerulus regulate the surface area of the glomerular capillaries, thus regulating the glomerular filtration rate?
Net filtration pressure is determined by what three main pressures?
Glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure, capsular hydrostatic pressure, and blood colloid osmotic pressure
If the pressures in mmHg of GBHP, CHP, and BCOP are 55, 15, and 30, what is the net filtration pressure within the glomerular capsule?
55 mmHg - 15 mmHg - 30 mmHg =
The amount of filtrate formed in all the renal corpuscles of both kidneys each minute is called what, and how many mL per minute is the average for an adult?
Glomerular filtration rate, 125mL
What are the three mechanisms that control the glomerular filtration rate?
Renal autoregulation, the neural regulation, and hormonal regulation
What are the two mechanisms that form the renal autoregulation mechanism?
Myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback
As blood pressure increases, afferent arterioles stretch resulting in the contraction of the smooth muscles of these vessels, reducing the amount of blood flow through the glomerular capillaries. The stimuli and response both occur within the kidney. What is the name of this mechanism?
The detection of higher concentrations of Na+ and Cl- by macula densa cells and the resulting inhibition of NO release in the juxtaglomerular apparatus is known as what?
The decrease of the glomerular filtration rate due to norepinephrine activation of alpha one receptors in the smooth muscles of afferent arterioles in the kidneys is known as what?
What hormone increases the glomerular filtration rate?
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) makes you pee
What hormone decreases the glomerular filtration rate?
Fluid leaking between tubular cells of the nephron is known as what?
Water reabsorption with solutes such as sodium, chloride, or glucose is called what?
Obligatory water reabsorption
Water reabsorption that is capable of adapting according to need is termed what?
Facultative water reabsorption
About how many renal pyramids are found in each kidney?
What test is used to measure kidney function?
Plasma creatinine test
What is the normal pH level of human urine?
Aldosterone increases the level in the blood of what ion?
Increases excretion of sodium (natriuresis)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)