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Flashcards in Urinary System - HY Deck (54):
1

A portion of the urogenital ridge forms the ...?

Nephrogenic cord.

2

The nephrogenic cord gives rise to the ...?

Urinary system.

3

The nephrogenic cord develops into 3 sets of nephric structures:

1. Pronephros.
2. Mesonephros.
3. Metanephros.

4

The pronephros develops by ...?

The differentiation of mesoderm within the nephrogenic cord to form:
1. Pronephric tubules.
2. Pronephric duct.

5

The pronephros regresses when?

Completely by week 5.

6

Is the pronephros functional in humans?

NO.

7

The mesonephros develops by ...?

The differentiation of mesoderm within the nephrogenic cord to form:
1. Mesonephric tubules.
2. Mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct).

8

The fate of mesonephros?

It is a PARTIALLY TRANSITORY structure.
MOST of the mesonephric tubules REGRESSES, but the mesonephric duct persists and opens into the UROGENITAL SINUS.

9

Is the mesonephros functional?

Yes, for a SHORT PERIOD.

10

The metanephros develops from ...?

An outgrowth of the mesonephric duct (called the URETERIC BUD) and from a condensation of mesoderm within the nephrogenic cord called the METANEPHRIC MESODERM.

11

The metanephros begins to form at week ... and is functional in the fetus at about week ...?

Week 5 to Week 10.

12

The metanephros develops into the ...?

DEFINITIVE ADULT KIDNEY.

13

The fetal kidney is divided into ...?

Lobes.

14

Development of the metanephros - The collecting system - The ureteric bud is an ...?

OUTGROWTH of the mesonephric duct.

15

Fate of the ureteric bud?

Initially penetrates the metanephric mesoderm and then undergoes repeated branching to form the:
1. Ureters.
2. Renal pelvis.
3. Major calyces.
4. Minor calyces.
5. Collecting ducts.

16

Development of the nephron - 1st step:

The inductive influence of the collecting ducts causes the metanephric mesoderm to differentiate into metanephric vesicles --> Later give rise to primitive S-shaped renal tubules that are critical to NEPHRON FORMATION.

17

The S-shaped renal tubules differentiate into the ...?

1. Connecting tubule.
2. Distal convoluted tubule.
3. Loop of Henle.
4. The proximal convoluted tubule.
5. Bowman's capsule.

18

Nephron formation is complete at birth, but ...?

Functional maturation of nephrons continues throughout infancy.

19

Derivatives of ureteric bud?

1. Ureter.
2. Renal pelvis.
3. Major calyx.
4. Minor calyx.
5. Collecting duct.

20

Metanephric mesoderm derivative:

Connecting tubule.

21

Metanephric vesicles derivative:

Distal convoluted tubule.

22

S-shaped renal tubules derivatives:

1. Loop of Henle.
2. Proximal convoluted tubule.
3. Renal (Bowman's) capsule.
4. Renal glomerulus.

23

The fetal metanephros is located at ...?

S1-S2.

24

How does the change in kidney location result?

From a disproportionate GROWTH of the embryo caudal to the metanephros.

25

During the relative ascent, the kidneys ...?

ROTATE 90 degrees --> Hilum turns medially.

26

Formation of the urinary bladder?

It is formed from the upper portion of the urogenital sinus, which is continuous with the ALLANTOIS.

27

The ALLANTOIS becomes a ...?

Fibrous cord called the URACHUS (or median umbilical ligament in the adult).

28

The lower end of the mesonephric ducts becomes incorporated into the POSTERIOR WALL of the bladder to form the ...?

TRIGONE OF THE BLADDER.

29

Renal agenesis occurs when ...?

The ureteric bud fails to develop eliminating the induction of metanephric vesicles and nephron formation.

30

Unilateral renal agenesis is relatively ...?

COMMON (more common in males).
NEVER assume that the patient has 2 kidneys.

31

Bilateral renal agenesis is relatively ...?

UNCOMMON.

32

Bilateral renal agenesis results in ...?

Potter SYNDROME --> Oligohydramnios:
1. Deformed limbs.
2. Wrinkly skin.
3. Abnormal facial appearance.

33

Renal ectopia?

When one or both kidneys fail to ascend. (pelvic kidney).
2 pelvic kidneys may fuse to form a solid mass, commonly called a PANCAKE kidney.

34

MC type of renal fusion is ...?

The horseshoe kidney.

35

A horseshoe kidney occurs when ...?

The inferior poles of the kidneys fuse across the midline.

36

The fused portion of the horseshoe kidney gets trapped where?

Below the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery.

37

What is the MC congenital obstruction of the urinary tract?

Ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

38

If there is severe ureteropelvic atresia ...?

A multicystic dysplastic kidney is found, in which the cysts are actually dilated CALYCES.

39

AR PKD has been mapped on ...?

6p.

40

Treatment of AR PKD?

Dialysis + Kidney transplantation.

41

MC renal malignancy of childhood?

Wilms tumor.

42

MC primary tumor of childhood?

WT.

43

WT is typically due to suppression of ...?

WT1 located on chr. 11.

44

WT morphology:

1. Large, solitary, well-circumscribed mass.
2. Soft, homogenous, tan-gray in color.

45

Histology of WT:

Interesting because it tends to recapitulate the different stages of embryological formation of the kidney --> 3 classic histological areas:
1. Stromal area.
2. A blastemal area of tightly packed embryonic cells.
3. Tubular area.

46

WT is also associated with ...?

Other congenital anomalies called the WAGR complex:
1. WT.
2. Aniridia (absence of iris).
3. GU malformations.
4. Mental retardation.

47

Ureteropelvic duplications occur when ...?

The ureteric bud prematurely divides before penetrating the metanephric blastema --> Results in either double kidney or duplicated ureter and renal pelvis.

48

The term duplex kidney refers to ...?

A configuration where 2 ureters drain on kidney.

49

Urachal fistula or cyst occurs when ...?

A remnant of the allantois persists, thereby forming fistula or cyst.

50

Urachal cyst or fistula is found along ...?

The midline on a path from the umbilicus to the apex of the urinary bladder.

51

An urachal fistula forms a ...?

Direct connection between the urinary bladder and the outside of the body at the UMBILICUS --> Causing urinary drainage from the umbilicus.

52

Nutcracker syndrome occurs when ...?

The LEFT renal vein is compressed between the SMA and abdominal aorta.

53

Nutcracker syndrome - Clinical findings:

1. Hematuria leading to anemia.
2. Left testicular pain in men.
3. LLQ pain in women.
4. Varicocele.

54

How is the urogenital ridge formed?

The intermediate mesoderm forms a longitudinal elevation along the dorsal body wall called the UROGENITAL RIDGE.