Urinary Tract Infections Flashcards Preview

Jason's Renal Block > Urinary Tract Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary Tract Infections Deck (48):
1

Acute cystitis is?

infection of bladder

2

pyelonephritis

ascending infection of kidney

3

what is sterile pyuria?

pus in urine without bacterial growth

4

asymptomatic bacteriuria?

bacteria in urine without symptoms

5

where in the urinary tract should it be sterile?

bladder, ureter, kidneys

6

which bacterial species accounts for 80% of community vs. hospital acquired UTIs?

80% v. 40%

7

Proteus species are gram what?

-ve rods

8

What is a common gram +ve UTI agent?

staph saprophyticus

9

polyomaviruses for UTIs are only applicable to what population?

immunocompromised

10

adenovirus may cause what in UTIs?

haemorrhagic cystitis

11

hantavirus may cause what?

renal disease

12

most common mode of contamination for UTIs?

from perineum and of gut origin

13

Salmonella typhi causing UTIs how?

in septicaemic phase, can shed and fix into different organs and into urine

14

where is the reservoir for S. Typhi in humans?

gall bladder

15

3 organisms that cause UTI and spread through blood

staph aureus
salmonella Typhi
TB

16

Innate immunity of the UT include what 4 things?

Transitional epithelium
Resistant architecture
urine
constant flushing

17

4 normal host factors that promote UTIs

short urethra in females
coitus
colonisation of distal urethra
no circumcision in infant boys only

18

2 abnormal host factors promoting UTIs

1. incomplete bladder emptying (neuro or structural)
2. catheterisation

19

what is vesico-ureteric reflux?

ureter entering bladder spincter doesn't contract when bladder contracts during voiding and can cause pyelonephritis

20

What is siderophores?

iron acquisition: can suck iron from transferrin and bacteria uses it

21

adhesins used in UTIs by bacteria? 2 most common:

type 1 fimbriae
PAP pili both E.coli

22

E.coli Hly secretes what associated with kidney damage?

Haemolysin

23

Urease in which bacteria? what does it do?

Proteus uses it to make struvite stones (ammonia)

24

E.coli and Klebsiella have what kind of capsule? polysaccharide or protein?

polysaccharide

25

E.coli uses PAP pili where? uses type 1 fimbriae where?

kidneys
Bladder

26

can one distinguish between upper and lower UTI?

no not easily

27

clinical symptoms of UTI?

burning with urination
fever, chills
tenderness with kidney/bladder

28

when use radiology for UTI?

detect structural/functional abnormality

29

What is suprapubic aspirate? significance of culture?

urine sample directly through abdomen into bladder, ANY bug is significant

30

when use bag sample for UTI? useful?

in babies
not really useful, only if it's negative

31

how to collect urine per urethra?

MSU
midstream urine

32

where to collect urine from catheter?

junction b/n catheter and collection tube

33

Why get urine to lab ASAP?

bacteria will replicate and double every 30 minutes and get skewed result

34

What is a normal squamous epithelial cell count in urine?

ZERO. if there is = poorly collected sample

35

WBC in urine: normal vs. abnormal?

N= 10^5

36

RBC in urine: normal vs. abnormal?

N= 10^5

37

quantitative bacteria in urine: normal vs. abnormal especially??

N=10^5 especially if only one species

38

abnormal bacterial from catheter urine is more than?

>10^2

39

How long can you keep urine refrigerated?

18 hours

40

What is sterile pyuria?

no growth but WBCs >10^5

41

3 causes of sterile pyuria

non-infectious eg. tumour
partial treatment
hard to grow bacteria eg. TB

42

3 drugs choices for cystitis treatment? how long?

cephalexin
co-amoxyclav
trimethoprim
5 days

43

what should you do if <2yr. old UTI?

Urinary tract abnormality check

44

3 drugs choices for pyelonephritis treatment? how long?

cephalexin
co-amoxyclav
trimethoprim
10 days

45

severe pyelonephritis use what antibiotics?

amoxycilllin + gentamicin

46

when is asymptomatic bacteriuria significant?

pregnancy: causes premature labour

47

what is considered time wise: recurrent UTI in women?

>2UTIs in 6 months

48

management of recurrent UTI in women? 2 main ones.

postcoital voiding
antimicrobial prophylaxis