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Flashcards in Urinary Tract Infections Deck (46)
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1

What are two examples of factors which make a UTI 'complicated'?

Systemic symptoms or a renal tract structural abnormality

2

What are some risk factors for the development of a UTI?

Diabetes, catheterisation, sexual activity/pregnancy in women

3

What organism is the most common cause of a UTI?

E. coli

4

Which organism causing UTI produces a 'burnt chocolate' smell on culture, and shows a 'swarming' pattern?

Proteus spp.

5

Which organism causing UTI can result in the formation of struvite (triple phosphate) stones?

Proteus spp.

6

S. saprophyticus is an organism which can cause UTI- it is most common in who?

Women of child-bearing age

7

Symptoms of dysuria, haematuria, frequency/urgency and suprapubic pain are characteristic of which UTI?

Acute cystitis

8

Other than the characteristic features of cystitis, what are some additional features of acute pyelonephritis?

Fever/rigors, nausea/vomiting, loin pain

9

What are some presenting symptoms of prostatitis?

Flu-like symptoms, lower backache, haematospermia

10

A swollen/tender/boggy prostate on examination suggests what possible diagnosis?

Acute prostatitis

11

If an MSSU cannot be taken for any reason, what are some other methods of obtaining an uncontaminated urine sample for microscopy, culture and sensitivity?

Suprapubic aspiration or straight catheter

12

Which two elements of urinalysis testing are most specific for a UTI?

Nitrites and leukocytes

13

What investigation is used as a first line investigation for UTI in hospital, or to confirm a diagnosis suspected on urinalysis in primary care?

Urine cultures

14

What investigation should be performed on every uncatheterised male who presents with a UTI?

Urine cultures

15

If patients with a UTI are systemically unwell, what blood tests should be taken?

FBC, U&E, CRP, blood cultures

16

What is the first line investigation if imaging is necessary for someone with a UTI?

Renal ultrasound

17

If nothing is detected on renal ultrasound, what is the second line imaging test for UTI?

Cystoscopy

18

Which antibiotic commonly used to treat UTIs must be avoided in the first trimester of pregnancy?

Trimethoprim

19

Which antibiotic commonly used to treat UTIs must be avoided in late pregnancy, breastfeeding and children aged < 3 months?

Nitrofurantoin

20

What is the risk of using nitrofurantoin in late pregnancy, breastfeeding and children aged < 3 months?

Neonatal haemolysis

21

Which antibiotic commonly used to treat UTIs comes with a risk of severe pulmonary reactions and should be avoided in those with pre-existing interstitial lung disease?

Nitrofurantoin

22

If a patient has an eGFR < 20ml/min, what antibiotic should be used instead of gentamicin?

Aztreonam

23

What lifestyle advice should be given to all patients with a UTI?

Drink lots of fluids and urinate often

24

What is meant by the term abacterial cystitis?

The patient has symptoms of a UTI but no significant growth on culture

25

Symptomatic relief is the treatment advised for abacterial cystitis or urethral syndrome. What can be used to alkalinise the urine for this purpose?

Potassium citrate

26

What is meant by the term asymptomatic bacteriuria?

The patient has bacteria in the urine but remains asymptomatic

27

When is antibiotic treatment required for asymptomatic bacteriuria and why?

In pregnant women- if untreated, this risks progressing to pyelonephritis or causing IUGR/premature delivery

28

How should pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria be treated?

Antibiotics for 7 days and a test of cure

29

What is the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria or UTI in the first two trimesters of pregnancy?

Nitrofurantoin

30

What is the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria or UTI in the third trimester of pregnancy?

Trimethoprim