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Flashcards in Urolithiasis Deck (47)
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1

What is the most common type of uroliths in dogs and cats?

Struvite and Ca oxalate

2

Medical dissolution is possible for most stones except _____

Ca oxalate

3

What diet is used to treat cystine, urate, and Ca oxalate stones?

Alkalinizing diet

4

What diet is used to treat struvite stones?

Acidifying diet

5

Which stones are radiolucent and my not be visible on radiographs?

Cystine and urate

6

How do you increase urine volume to keep the urine dilute and dissolve crystal substrates?

High moisture content

7

In dogs, what are struvite stones usually induced by?

UTI via urease+ microves

8

What are the three components of struvite crystals?

Magnesium, ammonium, phsophate

9

How do you reduce the amount of ammonium in a diet?

Low protein

10

Why is a low protein diet less important in cats than it is for struvite stones in dogs?

Struvite stones are sterile in cats

11

Which stones are the most difficult and unlikely to dissolve and usually require surgery?

Ca oxalate

12

Which dog breeds are predisposed to Ca oxalate?

Schnauzer, Yorkie, Lhasa apso

13

What should be avoided in a diet for Ca oxalate stones?

Excessive protein, Ca, Vit D, and Na

14

What should be provided in a diet for Ca oxalate stones?

Adequate phosphorus, Mg, and Vit B6

15

How does phosphorous prevent a Ca oxalate stone?

Prevents Vit D activation

16

What pH is Ca oxalate more likely to form in?

Acidic urine

17

Which dog breeds are predisposed to cystine stone formation?

Bulldogs, Newfoundlands, Dachshunds

18

How do you treat a cystine stone?

2-MPG

19

How does 2-MPG help treat a cystine stone?

Binds to cystine to form a more soluble compound

20

What dietary considerations are needed to treat a cystine stone?

Low protein, Low Na, alkalinizing diet

21

Which dog breed is predisposed to urate stones?

Dalmations

22

How do you treat a urate stone?

Allopurinol

23

How does Allopurinol help treat a urate stone?

Decr. uric acid by inhibition of conversion of hypoxanthine-->xanthine-->uric acid

24

What might happen if you give Allopurinol without also providing the dog with a reduced protein diet?

Xanthine stone formation

25

What type of uroliths do horses get?

Ca carbonate/phosphate

26

Why are horses prone to Ca carbonate/phosphate uroliths?

Equine urine contains lots of Ca

27

What type of urine does Ca carbonate/phosphate form in?

Alkaline urine

28

What is the most common equine urolith?

Ca carbonate

29

Sheep grazing lush pasture are likely to get what type of uroliths?

Ca carbonate

30

Clover and alfalfa predispose to what type of uroliths?

Calcium uroliths