Flashcards in Urolithiasis Deck (47)
What is the most common type of uroliths in dogs and cats?
Struvite and Ca oxalate
Medical dissolution is possible for most stones except _____
What diet is used to treat cystine, urate, and Ca oxalate stones?
What diet is used to treat struvite stones?
Which stones are radiolucent and my not be visible on radiographs?
Cystine and urate
How do you increase urine volume to keep the urine dilute and dissolve crystal substrates?
High moisture content
In dogs, what are struvite stones usually induced by?
UTI via urease+ microves
What are the three components of struvite crystals?
Magnesium, ammonium, phsophate
How do you reduce the amount of ammonium in a diet?
Why is a low protein diet less important in cats than it is for struvite stones in dogs?
Struvite stones are sterile in cats
Which stones are the most difficult and unlikely to dissolve and usually require surgery?
Which dog breeds are predisposed to Ca oxalate?
Schnauzer, Yorkie, Lhasa apso
What should be avoided in a diet for Ca oxalate stones?
Excessive protein, Ca, Vit D, and Na
What should be provided in a diet for Ca oxalate stones?
Adequate phosphorus, Mg, and Vit B6
How does phosphorous prevent a Ca oxalate stone?
Prevents Vit D activation
What pH is Ca oxalate more likely to form in?
Which dog breeds are predisposed to cystine stone formation?
Bulldogs, Newfoundlands, Dachshunds
How do you treat a cystine stone?
How does 2-MPG help treat a cystine stone?
Binds to cystine to form a more soluble compound
What dietary considerations are needed to treat a cystine stone?
Low protein, Low Na, alkalinizing diet
Which dog breed is predisposed to urate stones?
How do you treat a urate stone?
How does Allopurinol help treat a urate stone?
Decr. uric acid by inhibition of conversion of hypoxanthine-->xanthine-->uric acid
What might happen if you give Allopurinol without also providing the dog with a reduced protein diet?
Xanthine stone formation
What type of uroliths do horses get?
Why are horses prone to Ca carbonate/phosphate uroliths?
Equine urine contains lots of Ca
What type of urine does Ca carbonate/phosphate form in?
What is the most common equine urolith?
Sheep grazing lush pasture are likely to get what type of uroliths?