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Flashcards in U.S. History Deck (142):
1

John Adams

  • American statesman of the 18th and 19th centuries and one of the Founding Fathers
  • He signed the Declaration of Independence and later served as the second President of the United States

2

Benedict Arnold

  • American general of the Revolutionary War who famously plotted to betray the Americans and side with the British in giving up the fort at West Point
  • His name is now synonymous with betrayal

3

John Wilkes Booth

  • An American actor and Confederate sympathizer who assassinated Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865
  • He was tracked down and killed 12 days later

4

Robert E. Lee

American general who commanded the Confederate troops during the Civil War

5

Frederick Douglass

  • American writer and abolitionist of the 19th century
  • An escaped slave, he was known both for his oratory and for his autobiography Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass

6

Benjamin Franklin

  • One of the Founding Fathers of the United States and an inventor, scientist, statesman, writer, and printer
  • He signed the Declaration of Independence and later served as American diplomat in negotiating with Britain and France
  • His theories and research regarding electricity were significant, and he invented bifocals, the lightning rod, and a kind of metal-lined fireplace called the Franklin stove
  • His written works include Poor Richard's Almanack and The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

7

Ulysses S. Grant

  • Military and political leader of the 19th century
  • During the Civil War he served as general of the Union army and later became the 18th President of the United States

8

John Hancock

  • American politician of the 18th century who was president of the Continental Congress and was the first to sign the Declaration of Independence
  • As a result, his name now signifies a signature

9

Alexander Hamilton

  • American political leader of the 18th and 19th centuries who was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States
  • He contributed to The Federalist Papers and helped draft the Constitution

10

Thomas Jefferson

  • American politician of the 18th and 19th centuries and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States
  • The main author of the Declaration of Independence, he later served as the third President of the United States 
  • He oversaw the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, and founded the University of Virginia

11

Lewis and Clark

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, who went on a two-year (1804-06) expedition to explore the American west to study the terrain, wildlife, natural resources, and geography

12

Marquis de Lafayette

French political and military leader of the 18th and 19th centuries who supported the American Revolution and fought as a general in the American army during the war

13

Abraham Lincoln

  • American politician of the 19th century who served as President of the United States from 1861-65 and is generally regarded as one of the most revered presidents
  • He oversaw the Union during the Civil War and is known for issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, overseeing the approval of the 13th Amendment, and delivering the Gettysburg Address

14

James Monroe

President of the United States from 1817-25, who issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 and oversaw the Missouri Compromise

15

Thomas Paine

  • English-born American revolutionary and author who wrote the highly influential 1776 pamphlet Common Sense, which called for the American colonies' independence from Britain
  • He later authored Rights of Man, in support of the French Revolution, and The Age of Reason, which supported deism and promoted reason

16

James Madison

  • Political leader of the 18th and 19th centuries, one of the Founding Fathers, and the fourth President of the United States
  • He authored the Bill of Rights and played an enormous role in the drafting of the Constitution
  • During his presidency the United States fought in the War of 1812

17

William Penn

British colonist and Quaker of the 17th and 18th centuries who founded Pennsylvania

18

Paul Revere

Hero of the American Revolution who famously rode through the Massachusetts countryside on the night before the Battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775, warning colonists of incoming British troops

19

Harriet Tubman

  • Escaped slave and abolitionist of the 19th and 20th centuries who helped dozens of slaves to freedom using the Underground Railroad
  • During the Civil War she served as a spy for the Union

20

George Washington

  • One of the Founding Fathers, the general of the American army in the Revolutionary War, and later, the first President of the United States
  • Unanimously elected President under the new Constitution, he adopted a careful financial program and foreign policy and made use of a cabinet system

21

  • American statesman of the 18th and 19th centuries and one of the Founding Fathers
  • He signed the Declaration of Independence and later served as the second President of the United States

John Adams

22

  • American general of the Revolutionary War who famously plotted to betray the Americans and side with the British in giving up the fort at West Point
  • His name is now synonymous with betrayal

Benedict Arnold

23

  • An American actor and Confederate sympathizer who assassinated Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865
  • He was tracked down and killed 12 days later

John Wilkes Booth

24

American general who commanded the Confederate troops during the Civil War

Robert E. Lee

25

  • American writer and abolitionist of the 19th century
  • An escaped slave, he was known both for his oratory and for his autobiography Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass

Frederick Douglass

26

  • One of the Founding Fathers of the United States and an inventor, scientist, statesman, writer, and printer
  • He signed the Declaration of Independence and later served as American diplomat in negotiating with Britain and France
  • His theories and research regarding electricity were significant, and he invented bifocals, the lightning rod, and a kind of metal-lined fireplace called the Franklin stove
  • His written works include Poor Richard's Almanack and The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin

27

  • Military and political leader of the 19th century
  • During the Civil War he served as general of the Union army and later became the 18th President of the United States

Ulysses S. Grant

28

  • American politician of the 18th century who was president of the Continental Congress and was the first to sign the Declaration of Independence
  • As a result, his name now signifies a signature

John Hancock

29

  • American political leader of the 18th and 19th centuries who was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States
  • He contributed to The Federalist Papers and helped draft the Constitution

Alexander Hamilton

30

  • American politician of the 18th and 19th centuries and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States
  • The main author of the Declaration of Independence, he later served as the third President of the United States 
  • He oversaw the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, and founded the University of Virginia

Thomas Jefferson

31

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, who went on a two-year (1804-06) expedition to explore the American west to study the terrain, wildlife, natural resources, and geography

Lewis and Clark

32

French political and military leader of the 18th and 19th centuries who supported the American Revolution and fought as a general in the American army during the war

Marquis de Lafayette

33

  • American politician of the 19th century who served as President of the United States from 1861-65 and is generally regarded as one of the most revered presidents
  • He oversaw the Union during the Civil War and is known for issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, overseeing the approval of the 13th Amendment, and delivering the Gettysburg Address

Abraham Lincoln

34

President of the United States from 1817-25, who issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 and oversaw the Missouri Compromise

James Monroe

35

  • English-born American revolutionary and author who wrote the highly influential 1776 pamphlet Common Sense, which called for the American colonies' independence from Britain
  • He later authored Rights of Man, in support of the French Revolution, and The Age of Reason, which supported deism and promoted reason

Thomas Paine

36

  • Political leader of the 18th and 19th centuries, one of the Founding Fathers, and the fourth President of the United States
  • He authored the Bill of Rights and played an enormous role in the drafting of the Constitution
  • During his presidency the United States fought in the War of 1812

James Madison

37

British colonist and Quaker of the 17th and 18th centuries who founded Pennsylvania

William Penn

38

Hero of the American Revolution who famously rode through the Massachusetts countryside on the night before the Battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775, warning colonists of incoming British troops

Paul Revere

39

  • Escaped slave and abolitionist of the 19th and 20th centuries who helped dozens of slaves to freedom using the Underground Railroad
  • During the Civil War she served as a spy for the Union

Harriet Tubman

40

  • One of the Founding Fathers, the general of the American army in the Revolutionary War, and later, the first President of the United States
  • Unanimously elected President under the new Constitution, he adopted a careful financial program and foreign policy and made use of a cabinet system

George Washington

41

Noah Webster

Editor and writer of the 18th and 19th centuries most known for his blue-backed spelling books and his American Dictionary of the English Language

42

Betsy Ross

American seamstress of the 18th and 19th centuries who is credited with making the first American flag

43

James K. Polk

  • American statesman of the 19th century who served as President of the United States from 1845-49
  • He led the nation to victory in the Mexican-American War and oversaw the acquisition of large territories in the west, including Texas and California
  • The Naval Academy also opened during his presidency

44

Pocahontas

  • Native American princess of the 17th century who befriended Captain John Smith of the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia
  • She is said to have prevented Smith's execution by her father by throwing herself upon him, an anecdote that has since been romanticized
  • She later moved to England and briefly became something of a celebrity

45

Bill Clinton

  • American politician of the 20th and 21st centuries who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993-2001
  • A Democrat and former Rhodes Scholar, he served as governor of his native Arkansas
  • During his presidency he gained considerable popularity thanks in large part to the booming American economy
  • He also signed the North American Free Trade Agreement and passed welfare reform, but his second term was marred by a sex scandal and subsequent impeachment
  • He has since founded the William J. Clinton Foundation to address humanitarian causes such as AIDS prevention

46

Susan B. Anthony

Civil rights leader of the 19th and 20th centuries who is best known for her central role in the women's rights movement for the advocacy of women's suffrage

47

Madeleine Albright

Czech-born American diplomat and professor who was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State (1997-2001)

48

Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow

  • Two outlaws and robbers whose exploits in the Central United States in the 1930s gained considerable attention
  • The couple was ambushed and killed by authorities in Louisiana in 1934

49

George W. Bush

  • American politician of the 20th and 21st centuries who was elected governor of Texas in 1994 and served as President of the United States from 2001-09
  • A Republican and the son of former President George H.W. Bush, he narrowly defeated Al Gore in the controversial 2000 election, plagued by charges of irregularities in the counting of votes
  • Following the 9/11 attacks in 2001, he launched the War on Terror, resulting in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq
  • He signed into law the PATRIOT Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, and general tax cuts
  • His approval ratings dropped late in his presidency, due in large part because of the 2008 financial crisis

50

W.E.B. DuBois

  • American author, professor, and civil rights activist of the 19th and 20th centuries who co-founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
  • He insisted that blacks should receive full civil rights and political representation, contrary to the position of Booker T. Washington, who argued that blacks should submit to white political rule

51

Amelia Earhart

  • 20th-century aviator who was the first woman to fly an airplane across the Atlantic Ocean
  • She disappeared in 1937 while flying over the Pacific Ocean

52

Al Capone

  • Chicago-based American gangster who led a crime syndicate in the late 1920s and early 1930s, primarily focused on the illegal sale of alcohol
  • He was sent to prison in 1931 for tax evasion

53

Betty Friedan

  • Author and activist of the 20th century who was a major figure in the Women's Movement and was the first president of the National Organization for Women
  • Her most famous work is The Feminine Mystique, published in 1963

54

Marcus Garvey

Jamaican-born political leader and black nationalist who was a proponent of the Back-to-Africa movement and founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association

55

J. Edgar Hoover

  • American law enforcement official of the 20th century who was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
  • He is considered a pioneer in law enforcement for his innovations to police technology, but he is also seen as a controversial figure who abused his power and used illegal and secretive methods to collect evidence

56

Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • African-American clergyman and political leader of the 20th century who was the most prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement
  • He combatted racial inequality through nonviolence, promoting the use of boycotts or sit-ins
  • He is most famous for his 1963 "Letter from Birmingham Jail" and for organizing the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech
  • He was assassinated by James Earl Ray on April 4, 1968

57

Helen Keller

  • American author and activist of the 19th and 20th centuries who was deaf and blind but who learned to write, read, and communicate through sign language
  • Her work with her teacher Anne Sullivan was dramatized in the play and film The Miracle Worker

58

John F. Kennedy

  • American politician of the 20th century who was President of the United States from 1961-63
  • A Democrat, he had served in the South Pacific in World War II, and, at 43, was the youngest person to be elected President
  • He supported the Space Race and the Civil Rights Movement, negotiated the Cuban Missile Crisis, oversaw the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, and was in office for the building of the Berlin Wall and the early years of the Vietnam War
  • He was assassinated in Dallas on November 22, 1963; Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime

59

Henry Kissinger

  • German-born American writer and diplomat who served as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State under Presidents Nixon and Ford
  • He helped open relations with the People's Republic of China and negotiated the Paris Peace Accords, putting an end to American involvement in the Vietnam War
  • Certain American foreign policy decisions executed by him remain controversial, most notably the secret bombings of Cambodia and Laos

60

Thurgood Marshall

  • Attorney and judge of the 20th century who was the first African-American justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from 1967 to 1991
  • He had worked as a lawyer for the NAACP and argued against segregation in Brown v. Board of Education

61

Editor and writer of the 18th and 19th centuries most known for his blue-backed spelling books and his American Dictionary of the English Language

Noah Webster

62

American seamstress of the 18th and 19th centuries who is credited with making the first American flag

Betsy Ross

63

  • American statesman of the 19th century who served as President of the United States from 1845-49
  • He led the nation to victory in the Mexican-American War and oversaw the acquisition of large territories in the west, including Texas and California
  • The Naval Academy also opened during his presidency

James K. Polk

64

  • Native American princess of the 17th century who befriended Captain John Smith of the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia
  • She is said to have prevented Smith's execution by her father by throwing herself upon him, an anecdote that has since been romanticized
  • She later moved to England and briefly became something of a celebrity

Pocahontas

65

  • American politician of the 20th and 21st centuries who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993-2001
  • A Democrat and former Rhodes Scholar, he served as governor of his native Arkansas
  • During his presidency he gained considerable popularity thanks in large part to the booming American economy
  • He also signed the North American Free Trade Agreement and passed welfare reform, but his second term was marred by a sex scandal and subsequent impeachment
  • He has since founded the William J. Clinton Foundation to address humanitarian causes such as AIDS prevention

Bill Clinton

66

Civil rights leader of the 19th and 20th centuries who is best known for her central role in the women's rights movement for the advocacy of women's suffrage

Susan B. Anthony

67

Czech-born American diplomat and professor who was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State (1997-2001)

Madeleine Albright

68

  • Two outlaws and robbers whose exploits in the Central United States in the 1930s gained considerable attention
  • The couple was ambushed and killed by authorities in Louisiana in 1934

Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow

69

  • American politician of the 20th and 21st centuries who was elected governor of Texas in 1994 and served as President of the United States from 2001-09
  • A Republican and the son of former President George H.W. Bush, he narrowly defeated Al Gore in the controversial 2000 election, plagued by charges of irregularities in the counting of votes
  • Following the 9/11 attacks in 2001, he launched the War on Terror, resulting in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq
  • He signed into law the PATRIOT Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, and general tax cuts
  • His approval ratings dropped late in his presidency, due in large part because of the 2008 financial crisis

George W. Bush

70

  • American author, professor, and civil rights activist of the 19th and 20th centuries who co-founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
  • He insisted that blacks should receive full civil rights and political representation, contrary to the position of Booker T. Washington, who argued that blacks should submit to white political rule

W.E.B. DuBois

71

  • 20th-century aviator who was the first woman to fly an airplane across the Atlantic Ocean
  • She disappeared in 1937 while flying over the Pacific Ocean

Amelia Earhart

72

  • Chicago-based American gangster who led a crime syndicate in the late 1920s and early 1930s, primarily focused on the illegal sale of alcohol
  • He was sent to prison in 1931 for tax evasion

Al Capone

73

  • Author and activist of the 20th century who was a major figure in the Women's Movement and was the first president of the National Organization for Women
  • Her most famous work is The Feminine Mystique, published in 1963

Betty Friedan

74

Jamaican-born political leader and black nationalist who was a proponent of the Back-to-Africa movement and founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association

Marcus Garvey

75

  • American law enforcement official of the 20th century who was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
  • He is considered a pioneer in law enforcement for his innovations to police technology, but he is also seen as a controversial figure who abused his power and used illegal and secretive methods to collect evidence

J. Edgar Hoover

76

  • African-American clergyman and political leader of the 20th century who was the most prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement
  • He combatted racial inequality through nonviolence, promoting the use of boycotts or sit-ins
  • He is most famous for his 1963 "Letter from Birmingham Jail" and for organizing the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech
  • He was assassinated by James Earl Ray on April 4, 1968

Martin Luther King, Jr.

77

  • American author and activist of the 19th and 20th centuries who was deaf and blind but who learned to write, read, and communicate through sign language
  • Her work with her teacher Anne Sullivan was dramatized in the play and film The Miracle Worker

Helen Keller

78

  • American politician of the 20th century who was President of the United States from 1961-63
  • A Democrat, he had served in the South Pacific in World War II, and, at 43, was the youngest person to be elected President
  • He supported the Space Race and the Civil Rights Movement, negotiated the Cuban Missile Crisis, oversaw the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, and was in office for the building of the Berlin Wall and the early years of the Vietnam War
  • He was assassinated in Dallas on November 22, 1963; Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime

John F. Kennedy

79

  • German-born American writer and diplomat who served as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State under Presidents Nixon and Ford
  • He helped open relations with the People's Republic of China and negotiated the Paris Peace Accords, putting an end to American involvement in the Vietnam War
  • Certain American foreign policy decisions executed by him remain controversial, most notably the secret bombings of Cambodia and Laos

Henry Kissinger

80

  • Attorney and judge of the 20th century who was the first African-American justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from 1967 to 1991
  • He had worked as a lawyer for the NAACP and argued against segregation in Brown v. Board of Education

Thurgood Marshall

81

Charles A. Lindbergh

  • American aviator of the 20th century who became a hero in 1927 after becoming the first person to fly nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean
  • In 1932, he again gained worldwide attention for the tragic kidnapping and murder of his infant son

82

Malcolm X

  • African-American Muslim minister and political leader of the 20th century
  • For years he preached black supremacy and strongly advocated for the rights of blacks in America, opposing integration and concentrating instead on separation
  • In 1964, however, he broke with the Nation of Islam, renounced racism, and increased his willingness to work with civil rights leaders
  • He was assassinated in 1965 by three members of the Nation of Islam

83

Joseph R. McCarthy

  • American politician of the 20th century who represented Wisconsin in the Senate
  • In the 1940s and 50s he led efforts to identify communists in the American government and society in general
  • His extreme opposition to communism led to many accusations of treason or disloyalty without sufficient regard for evidence, today known as McCarthyism

84

Sandra Day O'Connor

American judge who was the first woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court, from 1981 until her retirement in 2006

85

Lee Harvey Oswald

  • The alleged killer of President John F. Kennedy
  • He was captured but was never tried because he was killed by Jack Ruby two days after the assassination when he was being moved by police

86

Rosa Parks

  • African-American civil rights activist who famously refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama bus to a white passenger in 1955
  • She was arrested for civil disobedience, but she and the ensuing Montgomery Bus Boycott became symbols of the Civil Rights Movement

87

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

  • Also known as FDR, an American politician of the 20th century who was the 32nd President of the United States
  • A Democrat, he was elected four times and was president for longer than anyone else in American history, from 1933 until his death in 1945
  • He took office during the Great Depression and instituted major legislative changes as part of the New Deal, establishing government programs (like the FDIC, SEC, and Social Security) meant to reform and boost the economy
  • After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he declared war on Japan and Germany, began the Manhattan Project, and helped lead the Allies to eventual victory, though he died before the war ended

88

Richard Nixon

  • American politician of the 20th century who was Vice President under Dwight D. Eisenhower and later won the 1968 presidential election as the Republican candidate
  • During his presidency the United States withdrew troops from Vietnam, but he was embroiled in the Watergate scandal, which eventually led to his resignation in 1974

89

George Wallace

  • American politician of the 20th century best known for being governor of Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement and resisting integration
  • He unsuccesfully ran for President four times, coming closest in 1968 and surviving an assassination attempt during his campaign in 1972
  • In later years he renounced his segregationist stance and endorsed integration

90

Booker T. Washington

  • American educator and author of the 19th and 20th centuries who headed the Tuskegee Institute, a black college in Alabama
  • In light of the political realities of the day, he urged blacks to pursue economic gains rather than sociopolitical equality with whites

91

Barack Obama

  • American politician who is the 44th and current President of the United States and the first African-American to hold the office
  • After serving as an Illinois Senator, he won a close Democratic primary campaign against Hillary Clinton and was elected President in 2008
  • His main policy initiatives have been in response to the American economic recession, but he has also sought to reform healthcare, in 2010 repealed "Don't Ask, Don't Tell", and in 2012 publicly supported the legalization of same-sex marriage
  • He ended American military involvement in Iraq and ordered the operation that resulted in the death of Osama bin Laden
  • He was reelected in 2012

92

Woodrow Wilson

  • American educator and statesman who served as President of Princeton University before later becoming President of the United States from 1913-21
  • A Democrat, he at first sought to keep the U.S. out of World War I but finally entered the war in 1917
  • In 1918 he issued his Fourteen Points, his goals for peace and the prevention of further conflict
  • After the war in 1919, he was instrumental to both the Treaty of Versailles and the creation of the League of Nations, which the Senate later refused to join, to his disappointment

93

Harry S. Truman

  • American political leader of the 20th century who served as FDR's last Vice President and became President when Roosevelt died in 1945
  • A Democrat, he was reelected in 1948 and served until 1953
  • He led the United States in the final months of World War II and made the controversial decision to use atomic weapons against Japan to end the war
  • He oversaw the Berlin Airlift, the creation of NATO, and the start of the Cold War
  • He also instituted the Marshall Plan to help Europe in its post-war recovery and gained approval for the Korean War in 1950

94

Colin Powell

  • American military leader and statesman of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • He served in the Vietnam War then rose through the American military ranks, becoming a general in the U.S. Army and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
  • He served as the Secretary of State from 2001-05 and was the first African-American to hold the position

95

Janet Reno

American attorney who became the first female Attorney General of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001

96

Henry Clay

  • American politician of the 19th century who represented Kentucky in both the House of Representatives and the Senate
  • Admired by Abraham Lincoln, he is regarded as one of the great senators in American history, especially for his central role in producing the Missouri Compromise in 1820 and the Compromise of 1850

97

Douglas MacArthur

American general of the 20th century who commanded Allied forces in the Pacific in World War II and later commanded troops of the United Nations in the Korean War

98

John C. Calhoun

  • American politician of the 19th century who was Vice President under both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson and also served as Senator, representing his native South Carolina
  • He promoted states' rights and nullification, and for his defense of slavery pointed the South toward secession

99

Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • American general and politician of the 20th century who commanded Allied forces in Europe in World War II
  • Highly popular in America after the war, he was elected President of the United States in 1952 and was elected again in 1956
  • His presidency was marked by booming prosperity, the end of McCarthyism, the end of the Korean War, the Suez Crisis, and the ongoing Cold War
  • Known as Ike, he also served as President of Columbia University for five years

100

George Patton

  • Olympic athlete and American military leader of the 20th century who served as general in World War II
  • An expert in motorized-vehicle attacks, he commanded troops in both North Africa and Europe

101

  • American aviator of the 20th century who became a hero in 1927 after becoming the first person to fly nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean
  • In 1932, he again gained worldwide attention for the tragic kidnapping and murder of his infant son

Charles A. Lindbergh

102

  • African-American Muslim minister and political leader of the 20th century
  • For years he preached black supremacy and strongly advocated for the rights of blacks in America, opposing integration and concentrating instead on separation
  • In 1964, however, he broke with the Nation of Islam, renounced racism, and increased his willingness to work with civil rights leaders
  • He was assassinated in 1965 by three members of the Nation of Islam

Malcolm X

103

  • American politician of the 20th century who represented Wisconsin in the Senate
  • In the 1940s and 50s he led efforts to identify communists in the American government and society in general
  • His extreme opposition to communism led to many accusations of treason or disloyalty without sufficient regard for evidence, today known as McCarthyism

Joseph R. McCarthy

104

American judge who was the first woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court, from 1981 until her retirement in 2006

Sandra Day O'Connor

105

  • The alleged killer of President John F. Kennedy
  • He was captured but was never tried because he was killed by Jack Ruby two days after the assassination when he was being moved by police

Lee Harvey Oswald

106

  • African-American civils rights activist who famously refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama bus to a white passenger in 1955
  • She was arrested for civil disobedience, but she and the ensuing Montgomery Bus Boycott became symbols of the Civil Rights Movement

Rosa Parks

107

  • Also known as FDR, an American politician of the 20th century who was the 32nd President of the United States
  • A Democrat, he was elected four times and was president for longer than anyone else in American history, from 1933 until his death in 1945
  • He took office during the Great Depression and instituted major legislative changes as part of the New Deal, establishing government programs (like the FDIC, SEC, and Social Security) meant to reform and boost the economy
  • After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he declared war on Japan and Germany, began the Manhattan Project, and helped lead the Allies to eventual victory, though he died before the war ended

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

108

  • American politician of the 20th century who was Vice President under Dwight D. Eisenhower and later won the 1968 presidential election as the Republican candidate
  • During his presidency the United States withdrew troops from Vietnam, but he was embroiled in the Watergate scandal, which eventually led to his resignation in 1974

Richard Nixon

109

  • American politician of the 20th century best known for being governor of Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement and resisting integration
  • He unsuccesfully ran for President four times, coming closest in 1968 and surviving an assassination attempt during his campaign in 1972
  • In later years he renounced his segregationist stance and endorsed integration

George Wallace

110

  • American educator and author of the 19th and 20th centuries who headed the Tuskegee Institute, a black college in Alabama
  • In light of the political realities of the day, he urged blacks to pursue economic gains rather than sociopolitical equality with whites

Booker T. Washington

111

  • American politician who is the 44th and current President of the United States and the first African-American to hold the office
  • After serving as an Illinois Senator, he won a close Democratic primary campaign against Hillary Clinton and was elected President in 2008
  • His main policy initiatives have been in response to the American economic recession, but he has also sought to reform healthcare, in 2010 repealed "Don't Ask, Don't Tell", and in 2012 publicly supported the legalization of same-sex marriage
  • He ended American military involvement in Iraq and ordered the operation that resulted in the death of Osama bin Laden
  • He was reelected in 2012

Barack Obama

112

  • American educator and statesman who served as President of Princeton University before later becoming President of the United States from 1913-21
  • A Democrat, he at first sought to keep the U.S. out of World War I but finally entered the war in 1917
  • In 1918 he issued his Fourteen Points, his goals for peace and the prevention of further conflict
  • After the war in 1919, he was instrumental to both the Treaty of Versailles and the creation of the League of Nations, which the Senate later refused to join, to his disappointment

Woodrow Wilson

113

  • American political leader of the 20th century who served as FDR's last Vice President and became President when Roosevelt died in 1945
  • A Democrat, he was reelected in 1948 and served until 1953
  • He led the United States in the final months of World War II and made the controversial decision to use atomic weapons against Japan to end the war
  • He oversaw the Berlin Airlift, the creation of NATO, and the start of the Cold War
  • He also instituted the Marshall Plan to help Europe in its post-war recovery and gained approval for the Korean War in 1950

Harry S. Truman

114

  • American military leader and statesman of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • He served in the Vietnam War then rose through the American military ranks, becoming a general in the U.S. Army and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
  • He served as the Secretary of State from 2001-05 and was the first African-American to hold the position

Colin Powell

115

American attorney who became the first female Attorney General of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001

Janet Reno

116

  • American politician of the 19th century who represented Kentucky in both the House of Representatives and the Senate
  • Admired by Abraham Lincoln, he is regarded as one of the great senators in American history, especially for his central role in producing the Missouri Compromise in 1820 and the Compromise of 1850

Henry Clay

117

American general of the 20th century who commanded Allied forces in the Pacific in World War II and later commanded troops of the United Nations in the Korean War

Douglas MacArthur

118

  • American politician of the 19th century who was Vice President under both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson and also served as Senator, representing his native South Carolina
  • He promoted states' rights and nullification, and for his defense of slavery pointed the South toward secession

John C. Calhoun

119

  • American general and politician of the 20th century who commanded Allied forces in Europe in World War II
  • Highly popular in America after the war, he was elected President of the United States in 1952 and was elected again in 1956
  • His presidency was marked by booming prosperity, the end of McCarthyism, the end of the Korean War, the Suez Crisis, and the ongoing Cold War
  • Known as Ike, he also served as President of Columbia University for five years

Dwight D. Eisenhower

120

  • Olympic athlete and American military leader of the 20th century who served as general in World War II
  • An expert in motorized-vehicle attacks, he commanded troops in both North Africa and Europe

George Patton

121

Neil Armstrong

American engineer, pilot, Navy officer, and astronaut who in 1969 became the first person to walk on the Moon

122

Dorothea Dix

American activist of the 19th century who played a crucial role in the establishment of the first American mental asylums

123

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

  • American activist of the 19th century who, along with Lucretia Mott, helped organize the first women's rights convention in America, held at Seneca Falls, NY in 1848
  • She was an active abolitionist and suffragist

124

Nancy Pelosi

  • American politician who is the current Minority Leader of the US House of Representatives and served from 2007-11 as the Speaker of the House
  • A Democrat who has represented California since 1987, she is the first woman to serve as Speaker of the House and is the highest-ranking female political leader in American history

125

Horace Mann

American education reformer and politician of the 19th century most famous for championing universal public education

126

Hillary Clinton

  • American politician, the wife of President Bill Clinton, and the Secretary of State of the United States from 2009-13
  • A graduate of Yale Law School, she was a Senator for New York from 2001-09 and a leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2008

127

Theodore Roosevelt

  • American war hero and politician who was President of the United States from 1901-09
  • Known as Teddy, he led a group of volunteer cavalrymen called the Rough Riders in the Spanish-American War, famous for their victory at the Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba
  • A Republican, he was elected Vice President in 1900 and became the youngest President ever (at 42) when William McKinley was killed
  • During his presidency he increased regulation of businesses, restricted monopolies, championed conservation, promoted increased food inspection, and oversaw the construction of the Panama Canal
  • He was known as an adventurous outdoorsman and hunter

128

Ronald Reagan

  • American film actor of the 20th century who began his political career in the 1960s, becoming Governor of California, and later, the 40th President of the United States (1981-89)
  • A Republican, he reduced taxes and increased spending on defense, planning to reduce federal spending outside of defense to balance the budget
  • The federal debt increased during his presidency, but he remained highly popular, called a "Great Communicator" and praised for his strong opposition to communism
  • On the international front, he engaged in an arms race with the USSR, instituted the Strategic Defense Initiative, and ordered an invasion of Grenada and a bombing of Libya

129

J. William Fulbright

  • United States Senator of the 20th century who represented Arkansas from 1945 to 1974
  • During his time in office he supported the creation of the United Nations and segregation, but opposed McCarthyism and American involvement in the Vietnam War
  • He is best known for establishing an international fellowship program that bears his name

130

Condoleezza Rice

  • American political leader and professor who was the first woman to serve as National Security Advisor (2001-05) and the second African-American to serve as United States Secretary of State (2005-09)
  • In 2009 she returned as a political science professor to Stanford University, where she'd worked before joining the Bush administration in 2001

131

Joseph Smith

American religious leader of the 19th century who founded the Latter Day Saint movement, of which Mormonism is a branch

132

American engineer, pilot, Navy officer, and astronaut who in 1969 became the first person to walk on the Moon

Neil Armstrong

133

American activist of the 19th century who played a crucial role in the establishment of the first American mental asylums

Dorothea Dix

134

  • American activist of the 19th century who, along with Lucretia Mott, helped organize the first women's rights convention in America, held at Seneca Falls, NY in 1848
  • She was an active abolitionist and suffragist

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

135

  • American politician who is the current Minority Leader of the US House of Representatives and served from 2007-11 as the Speaker of the House
  • A Democrat who has represented California since 1987, she is the first woman to serve as Speaker of the House and is the highest-ranking female political leader in American history

Nancy Pelosi

136

American education reformer and politician of the 19th century most famous for championing universal public education

Horace Mann

137

  • American politician, the wife of President Bill Clinton, and the Secretary of State of the United States from 2009-13
  • A graduate of Yale Law School, she was a Senator for New York from 2001-09 and a leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2008

Hillary Clinton

138

  • American war hero and politician who was President of the United States from 1901-09
  • Known as Teddy, he led a group of volunteer cavalrymen called the Rough Riders in the Spanish-American War, famous for their victory at the Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba
  • A Republican, he was elected Vice President in 1900 and became the youngest President ever (at 42) when William McKinley was killed
  • During his presidency he increased regulation of businesses, restricted monopolies, championed conservation, promoted increased food inspection, and oversaw the construction of the Panama Canal
  • He was known as an adventurous outdoorsman and hunter

Theodore Roosevelt

139

  • American film actor of the 20th century who began his political career in the 1960s, becoming Governor of California, and later, the 40th President of the United States (1981-89)
  • A Republican, he reduced taxes and increased spending on defense, planning to reduce federal spending outside of defense to balance the budget
  • The federal debt increased during his presidency, but he remained highly popular, called a "Great Communicator" and praised for his strong opposition to communism
  • On the international front, he engaged in an arms race with the USSR, instituted the Strategic Defense Initiative, and ordered an invasion of Grenada and a bombing of Libya

Ronald Reagan

140

  • United States Senator of the 20th century who represented Arkansas from 1945 to 1974
  • During his time in office he supported the creation of the United Nations and segregation, but opposed McCarthyism and American involvement in the Vietnam War
  • He is best known for establishing an international fellowship program that bears his name

J. William Fulbright

141

  • American political leader and professor who was the first woman to serve as National Security Advisor (2001-05) and the second African-American to serve as United States Secretary of State (2005-09)
  • In 2009 she returned as a political science professor to Stanford University, where she'd worked before joining the Bush administration in 2001

Condoleezza Rice

142

American religious leader of the 19th century who founded the Latter Day Saint movement, of which Mormonism is a branch

Joseph Smith