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2 Semester Final- Eighth Grade > US History > Flashcards

Flashcards in US History Deck (142):
1

1st president form 1789-1797

George Washington

2

Ranks as the second best president, never lived in the White House, only president unanimously elected.

George Washington

3

French architect hired by Washington/design DC

Pierre L'Enfant

4

Where is Pierre L'Enfant buried?

Arlington, overlooking Washington DC

5

Benjamin Banneker

African American assistant to Pierre L'Enfant, memorized his design and finished the construction

6

2nd president 1797-1801

John Adams

7

First president to live in the White House

John Adams

8

What were the two issues during John Adams presidency?

XYZ affair and the Alien Sedition Act

9

3rd president 1801-1809

Thomas Jefferson

10

Thomas Jefferson is not....

Known for being a great president

11

What is Laissez-Faire?

Let the people do as they choose

12

The embargo act

Stop trade with other nations

13

Marbury vs Madison

First time they used Judicial Review- Determine the constitutionality of a government action (right to declare acts of congress unconstitutional)

14

Purchased from France for $15 million, less than 0.04 an acre, the country doubled in size

Louisiana Purchase

15

Who were Meriweather Lewis and William Clark

Told to explore all territory until they reach the Pacific Ocean. They claimed land for the US
They explore Northern part of territory and find an all water route to the Pacific Ocean

16

When did Lewis and Clark leave up the Missouri River?

May 14, 1804

17

Shoshoi name means "Bird Woman". Became a guide to Lewis and Clark at 16

Sacajawea

18

Explores the southern part of territory. He provided the first detailed description of the Great Plains and the Rockies

Zebulon Pike

19

4th President 1809-1817, Father of the Constitution, inherits the country in a mess

James Madison

20

Tecumseh

Native American who would put a stop to the expansion of white settlers. Builds a union among Native American nations

21

Tenskwatawa

"The Prophet". Urged native Americans to return to their customs of their ancestors

22

Led by William Henry Harrison, attacked and destroyed Prophetstown

Battle of Tippecanoe

23

What was impressment?

Done by the British to American soldiers and forced them to serve on British war ships

24

Who wrote the "Star Spangled Banner"

Francis Scott Key

25

5th President, president during the Era of good feelings

James Monroe

26

Missouri Compromise

Made Maine a free state (23rd state), but Missouri was a slave state
Prohibited slavery north of the 36 degree, 30 minute boundary line

27

6th president, corrupt bargain, later became a House of Representatives member served 17 years only former president to do so

John Quincy Adams

28

7th president (president of the people)

Andrew Jackson

29

Who came up with the spoils system and fought the national bank, and was censured?

Andrew Jackson

30

Tariff

A fee paid by merchants who imported goods. Congress passed a law that placed a high tariff on imported goods from Europe

31

Trail of tears

1838-about 15,000 Cherokee are forced to move west, from south east to Oklahoma, 4,000 die

32

8th president, known as a Jacksonian,the panic of 1837 ruins his presidency

Martin Van Buren

33

9th president, gave a 1 1/2 hour speech at his inauguration
Dies of pneumonia, first president to die in office

William Henry Harrison

34

10th president
1st Vice President to accede after a death of a president
Signs the agreement for the annexation of Texas

John Tyler

35

Abolitionist

Do away with slavery

36

Fredrick Douglas

Born as a slave, but became very educated, escaped and became free. Wrote a book called North Star

37

Slave codes

These codes were written to prevent slave rebellions, slaves could not meet in large groups, a crime to teach enslaved people to read and write

38

What was the largest group of immigrants from 1820-1860 and what was it due to?

Irish due to a terrible potato famine

39

Temperance movement

Reformers blamed alcohol for family breakups, poverty, and crime. Called for drinking little or no alcohol

40

Communities based on a vision of a perfect society 1960's

Utopias

41

A convention for women's rights and equality. Established by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Most controversial issue: suffrage

Seneca Falls Convention 1848

42

Susan B Anthony

Built the women's rights movement to a national level, called for women's rights, temperance, equal pay and coeducation

43

Two best friends were a bible and a rifle, first American to visit California

Jedediah smith

44

Began in independence, Missouri in 1843
Left in the early spring and traveled 2,000 miles

Oregon trail

45

February 26- March 6,1846. Defeated by the Mexican army, all 187 American die in the battle, some women, children, and some servant live to tell of the battle

Alamo

46

Known as the king of the wild frontier. Became a congressman, fought and supposedly died in the last day of the battle at the Alamo

Davy Crockett

47

Belief the United States should extend from the Atlantic to the pacific

Manifest destiny

48

11th president, went to war with Mexico, fulfilled the manifest destiny

James Polk

49

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1848-known as the Mexican cession, the US oats $15 million
California would enter as the 31st free state

50

12th president 1849-1850
On July 4th, ate cherries and milk
Dies 5 days later of Cholera Morbus

Zachary Taylor

51

13th president, most forgettable president
Believed in slavery 60% of economy based on southern cotton

Millard Fillmore

52

14th president
Son dies in a train accident 3 weeks before inauguration, 3rd child lost, effects his presidency, signs Kansas-Nebraska Act

Franklin Pierce

53

Harriet Tubman

Freed over 300 slaves in 19 trips during the 1850's
Called the "Conductor of the Underground Railroad"
Known as the "Moses of her people"

54

15th president
Rated near the bottom for presidents, 7 southern states in February 1861 while he's in office

James Buchanan

55

16th president, ranked as the number one president
1858- "A house divided against itself cannot stand"
Save the union

Abraham Lincoln

56

Who was the first and only president for the confederate states of America?

Jefferson Davis

57

Asked by Lincoln to command the union, but declines
One of the greatest general ever, fought for the south

Robert E Lee

58

Battle of Gettysburg

July 1-3, 1863
High ground is very important, turning point of the war, 53,000 killed

59

Only civilian killed in the battle of Gettysburg

Jennie Wade

60

What virtually ended the civil war?

Surrender at Appomattox April 9,1865
Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox court house

61

Outlawed slavery

13th amendment

62

All information on Lincoln's assassination

Good Friday, April 14,1865
Watching "Our American Cousin"
Killed by John Wilkes booth
Sic Semper Tyrannis- thus always to tyrants

63

17th president 1865
Only former president to serve as a senator, he removed a public official without the consent of the the senate, first president to be impeached

Andrew Johnson

64

18th president
Commanding general Union
Appointed corrupt cabinet members which ruined his presidency

Ulysses S. Grant

65

1870-prohibited the states from denying any person the right to vote because of race,color, or previous servitude

15th amendment

66

Homestead Act

Opened the Great Plains for settlement in 1862, giving 160 acres of land for free if they live on it for 5 years plus pay a filing fee, lived on sod houses

67

Offered land and citizenship to Native American families to farm land of 160 acres. If they choose w ranch, it was 350 acres
Reservation: government set aside land for native Americans

Dawes act

68

June 25,1876 Montana
Sitting bull and crazy horse gather warriors to defend themselves, Custer wanting the glory, divided his army and attacked the native Americans
Around 250 soldiers are killed in what is known as custers last stand

Battle of Little Bighorn

69

Wounded knee

In South Dakota on December 29,1890, US soldiers were turning to capture Big Foot, the end some 300 Indians including women and children were killed along with 25 US soldiers. Marked an end of armed conflicts between white and Native Americans

70

The gilded age

What mark twain named the age of industry, refers to something covered in a thin layer of gold paint suggesting great wealth with terrible poverty that lay underneath

71

Statue of Liberty

October 28,1886
Symbolizes the land of freedom and opportunity, 152 copper statue
Torch-freedom
Tablet- Declaration of Independence

72

19th president, compromise of 1877( federal troops removed from south and federal money given to the south)

Rutherford B. Hayes

73

20th president,assassinated July 2nd 1881

James Garfield

74

21st president
Had to break the spoils system

Chester A. Arthur

75

23rd president
Dependent and disability pension- gave compensation to veterans disabled from nonmilitary causes and to veterans dependents

Benjamin Harrison

76

22nd and 24th president, only president it serve two nonconsecutive terms

Grover Cleveland

77

Appealed to the common people, believed in a single term for president, national tax, shorter work hours, women's right to vote

The populist party

78

Homer plessy vs Ferguson

Homer plessy sues for being denied a seat on a railroad car. Court rules that segregation is legal as long as it's equal

79

25th president, president during the Spanish American war
Fatally shot by Leon Czdgosz

William McKinely

80

USS Maine

Sent to Havana
February 15,1898 the ship suddenly exploded killing 260 American sailors

81

People who want to control the governments and resources of those nations, the US wanted to use their resources for economic growth to better the people

Imperialistic

82

The progressive movement

They focused on urban problems, government and business

83

Break up big combination of companies

Trust Busters

84

Schools wanted to teach good character and citizenship not just facts.

Progressive education

85

Music and leisure

Music of the era was ragtime and jazz
Movies were called nickelodeons

86

Variety shows

Vaudeville

87

26th president, a progressive trustbuster, preserved the wilderness, won a noble peace prize, Panama Canal

Theodore Roosevelt

88

27th president 1909-1913, later became the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

William H. Taft

89

28th president, first president with a Ph.D., moral diplomacy: promote democracy and world peace, president during WWI

Woodrow Wilson

90

Karl Marx

The father of modern socialism

91

Henry Ford made....

Model-T

92

Wilbur and Orville Wright

First controlled flight

93

Archduke Ferdinand

Heir to the throne, assassinated on June 28th 1914
His wife Sophie is also killed

94

Allied powers

Russia, France, England, USA (1917)

95

Central powers

Germany, Ottoman Empire, Austria Hungary

96

Fighting in ditches protected by barbed wire

Trench warfare

97

First dictator of Russia, leads the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 to overthrow ruled form 1917-1924

Vladimir Lenin

98

When did the Great War end?

At 11:00 A.M. on November 11,1918 (11/11 at 11, 1918)
Known as the war to end all wars

99

Wilsons 14 points

A plan toward world peace, point 14 called for a League of Nations (organization set up to settle conflicts through negotiations)

100

Treaty of Versailles

1) forced Germany to claim full responsibility for the war
2)Germany loses land claims
3) Demilitarize down to 100,000 men
4) pays reparations $33 billion

101

World epidemic spreads killing 25 million

Influenza

102

The red scare

Between 1919-1920 the fear of communism was in the USA

103

Lusitania

Sank off the coast of Ireland by a U-Boat May 7,1915
1,200 passengers are killed including 128 Americans

104

Germany will create an alliance with Mexico and Mexico will receive the territory lost in the southwest. German sinks 4 unarmed U.S. Merchant vessels

Zimmerman note

105

Doughboys

American infantry men with big buttons on the uniforms that resembled bakers

106

18th amendment

Prohibition of alcohol (1919) prohibiting the sale, consumption, and distribution of alcohol

107

19th amendment

1920- gave women the right to vote

108

When was the radio invented?

1920

109

Women who were thin, bobbed their hair, risqué dress, smoke, drink, and talk freely about many topics

Flappers

110

The Charleston

Danced started in 1913 became popular

111

Underground saloons

Speakeasies

112

American literature and poets

Known as the lost generation, the great Gatsby

113

Public enemy number one

Al Capone (scar face) of Chicago, arrested for failing to paths I income taxes. Went to prison and its of syphils

114

Scopes trail

1925- John scopes a substitute teacher allegedly taught the theory of evolution in the classroom
Known as the monkey trial

115

29th president
While visiting San Francisco, dies of a heart attack

Warren Harding

116

30th president
Supported civil right, signed Indian citizenship

Calvin Coolidge

117

Charles Lindbergh

May of 1927, flew the first nonstop transatlantic flight in the spirit of St. Louis

118

Black Tuesday

October 29th, 1929
Stock market crashes, everyone sells
Overproduction was the key to the crash

119

31st president, blamed for the Great Depression, known as the Great humanitarian

Herbert Hoover

120

The dust bowl

The 1930's a severe drought, wind storms pick up dirt and create dust clouds

121

32nd president 1933-1945; elected 4 times, suffered from polio

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

122

FDRs plan for economic recovery through the federal government. It was many ideas to solve the economic crisis

The new deal

123

Alphabet agencies

They would bring relief, recovery, and reform
CCC: civilian conservation Corp- the most popular provided jobs about 3 million men

124

21st amendment

1933 amendment repeals the 18th amendment (prohibition law) alcohol is now legal
Government could tax alcohol

125

First woman to pilot a plane across the Atlantic

Amelia Earhart

126

May 6, 1937- a German airship explodes in New Jersey killing 36 people. Most dramatic event of the decade

Zeppelin explosion

127

1933- became the Furher
The third reich
Master race

Adolf hitler

128

Axis powers

Germany (hitler)
Italy (Benito Mussolini)
Japan (Hirohito)

129

World War II began...

September 1939, Germany invades Poland (Blitzkrieg-Lightning War)

130

Operation Sea Lion

The Battle of Britain or "the blitz"-July-October 1940
Germany bombards factories and airstrips (Air raids) south of London

131

Dictator of Russia 1929-1952 led by terror, dies from cerebral hemorrhage

Joesph Stalin

132

Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

December 7,1941

133

Allied powers

USA, France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, China

134

Women who worked in the factories

Rosie the Riveter

135

Japanese internment camps

120,000 Japanese Americans are put in internment camps along the west coast

136

Deaths of WWII

6 million Jews (2/3 of the Jewish population Europe)

137

GI

Nickname for the solider "government issue"

138

Operation overload

June 6,1944
D-Day, the longest day, the invasion of Normandy

139

May 7,1945

V-E day
Germany surrenders, victory in Europe day

140

33rd president who gave the order to drop the bomb. President during Korea war

Harry S. Truman

141

The bomb

August 6,1945- Paul tibbets, Enola gay drops little boy over Hiroshima killing 92,000
August 9,1945-the box car drops fat man over Nagasaki

142

Signed the documents on September 2, on the battle ship Missouri
World War II is over

V-J day