Flashcards in U.S. History II Deck (109):
A terrible drought in the great plains. The soil dried to dust from Dakota to Texas wheat fields became known as vast Dust bowls.
was a shanty town built during the Great Depression by the homeless in the United States of America. Named after President Herbert Hoover
Breadlines, Soup Kitchens
By the mid-1930s, state and federal governments also were operating them. Soup kitchens served mostly soup and bread. Soup was economical because water could be added to serve more people, if necessary. At the outset of the Depression, Al Capone, the notorious gangster from Chicago, established the first soup kitchen.
The day prices took the steepest die yet. That day almost 16 million shares of stocks were sold. The stock market lost between $10 and $15 Billion in value
Takes place when many depositors decide to withdraw their money all at one time usually because fear that the bank will collapse.
Demanding investor repay the loam at once.
Buying a stock by paying only a fraction of the stock prices and borrowing the rest.
Buying an item on credit with a monthly plan to pay off the value of the good
Election of 1932
Hoover vs. Roosevelt. Roosevelt is different from hoover is because of his idea in government intervention during the great depression
Franklin D. Roosevelt
- FDR not unknown-ran for vice president in 1920 governor of NY in 1928. Time off from politics in between
- FDR is extremely popular. Americans see him in a new hope and confidence to get out of the great Depression.
- FDR wins handily, defeating Hoover 472-59. A new era of politics had begun. (He was governor of New York)
The New Deal
- Roosevelt's policies for ending the depression become known as the New Deal, or a series of programs put in place from 1933-1938 designed to revive the economy
- First era of Roosevelt looks to is the banks. Without restoring banks, nothing else would be possible
- Two phases of New deal First Deal (1933-1934) and Second New Deal (1935-1938)
- The New deal will HELP the economy, but will NOT completely end the great depression.
The New President began to send bill after bill to congress. Between March 9 and June 16 1933 which became known as the hundred days.
Radio broadcasts made by FDR to the American people to explain his initiatives
The New Deal Program
Bills proposed by Roosevelt to fix the great depression
Children during the great depression
Most kids worked in sweatshops with long hours and very poor pay to help support their families. Boys did typically did more and harsher work then girls. On the other hand, they both still had roles in factories. The girls worked on sewing and weaving clothes and gloves. A lot of children also worked in their family’s business or worked in sweatshops. Boys did meat packing. Most children today work for themselves. During the Great Depression, children worked to support their families. *****Children turned to Ms. Roosevelt for Help
A dictator is a political leader who wields absolute power. A state ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition.
1962 became the new Soviet dictator. Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower. However, he ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign. Born into poverty, Stalin became involved in revolutionary politics, as well as criminal activities, as a young man.Once in power, he collectivized farming and had potential enemies executed or sent to forced labor camps
Was a fervent anticommunist and an admirer of Mussolini Responsible for the Holocaust.
destruction or slaughter on a mass scale, especially caused by fire or nuclear war.
The laws excluded German Jews from Reich citizenship and prohibited them from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of "German or related blood." Ancillary ordinances to the laws disenfranchised Jews and deprived them of most political rights.
Stage 1: stripping right
No citizen ship
Fired from jobs
Banned from schools and universities
Limiting Jews rights
Forced to pay special taxes
They made Jews March for a long time with no food. This was used to try and get rid of evidence that they were killing Jewish people
Plan was the culmination of a decade of Nazi rule and the core goal of killing all Jewish
Most infamous and largest concentration camp
Located in modern day Poland
Known for mass murders using gas chambers. 1.3 million jews entered Auschwitz,
1.1 million died
Nazi Medical Experiments
To set free from slavery. Freedom.
Six Causes of the World War II
Treaty of versailles
Rise of Italian fascism
Rise of Hitler and the nazi party
Treaty of Versailles
After Germany lost WWI, the winning nations drafted a treaty to address issues such as territorial adjustments, reparations, armament restrictions, war guilt and the League of Nations
-the treaty punished Germany and left bitter feels
-Germany was forced to accept all the blame for the war and pay millions on reparations to Britain and France
hostility to or prejudice against Jews.
A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
America First Committee
as the foremost United States non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II
accepting demands in order to avoid conflict
Hitler's idea of the "perfect race". Hitler made references to an "Aryan Race" founding a superior type of humanity. The purest stock of Aryans according to Nazi ideology was the Nordic people of Sweden and Norway. The Nazis claimed that Germanic people represented a southern branch of the Aryan-Nordic population. Hitler's ideals for German men were blonde hair, slim built, strong and tough;
Germany, Japan and Italy. The Axis leaders were Adolf Hitler (Germany), Benito Mussolini (Italy), and Emperor Hirohito (Japan).
Great Britain, The United States, China, and the Soviet Union. The leaders of the Allies were Franklin Roosevelt (the United States), Winston Churchill (Great Britain), and Joseph Stalin (the Soviet Union).
How does Hitler violate the treaty of Versailles
German forces marching into the Rhineland
German forces gathering
Germans refused to pay reparations of 6.6 billion pounds.
Germany and Austria made an alliance to become a larger, more powerful nation.
Soon after Germany invaded Poland, Britain and France declared war.
Built an army he wasn't supposed to
Nazi Soviet Pact
in which the two countries agreed to take no military action against each other for the next 10 years.
was a speech delivered by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt to a Joint Session of Congress on December 8, 1941, one day after the Empire of Japan's attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and the Japanese declaration of war on the United States and the British
allowed the US to lend or lease arms to any country considered "vital to the defense to the US" The act allowed Roosevelt to sen things to Britain and they promised t pay us back
was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941. The attack, also known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor, led to the United States' entry into World War II.
War powers act
is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of the U.S. Congress.
Navajo Code Talkers
were instrumental in U.S. success in the Pacific during World War II. Navajo marines designed a secret warfare code that foiled expert Japanese code breakers who had managed to crack army and navy codes. Its secret lay in the intricacy of the Navajo tongue, some of whose sounds were unique, and it had no symbols or alphabet. A regional language, it was relegated to the southwest U.S. alone.
Women Of War
During World War II, some 350,000 women served in the U.S. Armed Forces, both at home and abroad. They included the Women’s Airforce Service Pilots, who on March 10, 2010, were awarded the prestigious Congressional Gold Medal. Meanwhile, widespread male enlistment left gaping holes in the industrial labor force. Between 1940 and 1945, the female percentage of the U.S. workforce increased from 27 percent to nearly 37 percent, and by 1945 nearly one out of every four married women worked outside the home.
is the popular name of a group of African-American military pilots (fighter and bomber) who fought in World War II.
They were vegetable, fruit, and herb gardens planted at private residences and public parks. They were used along with Rationing Stamps and Cards to reduce pressure on the public food supply.
was a war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I.
the United States during World War II was the forced relocation and incarceration in camps in the western interior of the country of between 110,000 and 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry, most of whom lived on the Pacific coast.
were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 (termed D-Day) of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. The largest seaborne invasion in history, the operation began the liberation of German-occupied northwestern Europe from Nazi control, and contributed to the Allied victory on the Western Front.
Battle of the Bulge
The Battle of the Bulge was the last major German offensive campaign in its western theater during World War II.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
At the order of President Harry S. Truman during the final stage of World War II, the United States dropped nuclear weapons on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
Victory in Europe Day
Victory over Japan Day
The Nuremberg trials, were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II.
is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations.
The February 1945 Yalta Conference was the second wartime meeting of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. During the conference, the three leaders agreed to demand Germany’s unconditional surrender and began plans for a post-war world.
Held near Berlin, the Potsdam Conference (July 17-August 2, 1945) was the last of the World War II meetings held by the “Big Three” heads of state. Featuring American President Harry S. Truman, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (and his successor, Clement Attlee) and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, the talks established a Council of Foreign Ministers and a central Allied Control Council for administration of Germany. The leaders arrived at various agreements on the German economy, punishment for war criminals, land boundaries and reparations. Although talks primarily centered on postwar Europe, the Big Three also issued a declaration demanding “unconditional surrender” from Japan
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991
A military operation in the late 1940s that brought food and other needed goods into West Berlin by air after the government of East Germany, which at that time surrounded West Berlin (see Berlin wall), had cut off its supply routes. The United States joined with western European nations in flying the supplies in. The airlift was one of the early events of the cold war.
as an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
The Cold War
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and powers in the Western Bloc.
Major events of the Cold War
Berlin Blockade (1948-49) Soviet Union trying to gain control of the whole of Berlin
Korean War (1950-53) US fighting Communist North Korea.
Berlin Crisis (1961) – Building of Berlin Wall to stop people leaving the East
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) – Closest to nuclear war as Soviet Union moved nuclear missiles towards Cuba.
Vietnam War (1955-75) US involved in fighting Vietcong Communist forces
1970s – Strategic Arms limitations talks leading to period of détente.
1979 – Soviet invasion of Afghanistan restoring tensions.
1980 – Olympic boycott. First by US in Moscow then by Soviet Union in US 1984.
Mid 1980s – Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduces perestroika (reorganisation) and glasnost (openness).
1989. Gorbachev allows Eastern European countries to break away from Warsaw Pact and overthrow Communist one-party state.
1991 – Formal dissolution of the USSR.
was an American politician who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–53), assuming that office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt during the waning months of World War II. He is known for launching the Marshall Plan to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, for leading the Cold War against Soviet and Chinese communism by establishing the Truman Doctrine and NATO, and for intervening in the Korean War.
was an ambitious set of proposals put forward by U.S. President Harry S. Truman to Congress in his January 1949 State of the Union address. More generally the term characterizes the entire domestic agenda of the Truman administration, from 1945 to 1953.
A "Red Scare" is the promotion by a state or society of widespread fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism.
a competition between nations for superiority in the development and accumulation of weapons, especially between the US and the former Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union and the United States, for supremacy in spaceflight capability
Duck and cover
Duck and Cover is a civil defense social guidance film that is often popularly mischaracterized as propaganda.
Execution of the Rosenberg
a married couple convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage in 1951, are put to death in the electric chair. The execution marked the dramatic finale of the most controversial espionage case of the Cold War
The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, came to the aid of South Korea. China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave some assistance
Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy. It is best known as the Cold War policy of the United States and its allies to prevent the spread of communism.
The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.
Douglas MacArthur was an American five-star general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II
Results of the Korean War
a war fought on the Korean Peninsula from 1950 to 1953 after troops from communist North Korea, armed with Soviet weapons, invaded democratic South Korea, prompting the United States and the United Nations to send forces to support South Korea and fight to unify the Korean Peninsula into one democratic nation, which in turn prompted China to join the war on North Korea's side; at war's end, the peninsula remained divided into two nations
Events of the Presidency of Dwight Eisenhower
Brown vs. Board Education
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
The Montgomery bus boycott, a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was an activist in the Civil Rights Movement, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement"
Little Rock Nine
was a group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas. They then attended after the intervention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and subsequent years in order to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Morgan v. Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional. The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did nothing to enforce them.
March on Washington
was held in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. The purpose of the march was to stand up for civil and economic rights for African Americans during a time when racism was more prevalent throughout society. At the march, Martin Luther King Jr., standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial, delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech in which he called for an end to racism
16th St. Baptist church bombing
was an act of white supremacist terrorism which occurred at the African-American 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama on Sunday, September 15, 1963, when four members of the Ku Klux Klan planted at least 15 sticks of dynamite attached to a timing device beneath the front steps of the church.
Selma to Montgomery March
were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile (87 km) highway from Selma, Alabama to the state capital of Montgomery. The marches were organized by nonviolent activists to demonstrate the desire of African-American citizens to exercise their constitutional right to vote, in defiance of segregationist repression, and were part of a broader voting rights movement underway in Selma and throughout the American South.
Death of Emmitt Till
was a 14-year-old African-American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955. The brutality of his murder and the fact that his killers were acquitted drew attention to the long history of violent persecution of African Americans in the United States. Till posthumously became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement.
often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after serving as the 37th Vice President of the United States under President John F. Kennedy from 1961 to 1963. A Democrat from Texas, he also served as a United States Representative and as the Majority Leader in the United States Senate. Johnson is one of only four people who have served in all four federal elected positions.
The civil rights act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
Voting rights act
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
Martin Luther King jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the Civil Rights Movement
Assassination of MLK
Assassinated in Memphis, TN April 4,1968 by James Earl Ray
Events in the 1960s.
The Sixties dominated by the Vietnam War, Civil Rights Protests, the 60s also saw the assassinations of US President John F Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Cuban Missile Crisis, and finally ended on a good note when the first man is landed on the moon .
In 1960, John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon squared off in the first televised presidential debates in American history. The Kennedy-Nixon debates not only had a major impact on the election’s outcome, but ushered in a new era in which crafting a public image and taking advantage of media exposure became essential ingredients of a successful political campaign. They also heralded the central role television has continued to play in the democratic process.
Election of the 1960s
was the 44th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960. The Republican Party nominated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, while the Democratic Party nominated John F. Kennedy, U.S. Senator from Massachusetts.
Accomplishments of Kennedy
1. America’s First Catholic President
2. Prevented Nuclear Armageddon
3. Emphasized Public Service
4. Established the Peace Corps
5. Set Goal to Put Man on the Moon
Rise of Fidel Castro
was a Cuban revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008
The Cuban Revolution was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement and its allies against the right-wing authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista
Bay of Pigs
The Bay of Pigs Invasion was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961
Cuban Missile Crisis
confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war.
Assassination of JFK
was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963 at 12:30 p.m Central Standard Time in Dallas, Texas while riding in a motorcade in Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was fatally shot by Lee Harvey Oswald while he was riding with his wife
was a war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The North Vietnamese army was supported by the Soviet Union, China and other communist allies and the South Vietnamese army was supported by the United States, South Korea, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies.The war is therefore considered a Cold War-era proxy war.
the theory that a political event in one country will cause similar events in neighboring countries, like a falling domino causing an entire row of upended dominoes to fall.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident/ Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin incident, also known as the USS Maddox incident, drew the United States more directly into the Vietnam War. It involved two separate confrontations involving North Vietnam and the United States in the waters of the Gulf of Tonkin.
My Lai Massacre
The Mỹ Lai Massacre was the Vietnam War mass killing of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968.
was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam. The name of the offensive comes from the Tết holiday, the Vietnamese New Year, when the first major attacks took place
was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s, following a break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972 and President Richard Nixon’s administration’s attempted cover-up of its involvement. When the conspiracy was discovered and investigated by the U.S. Congress, the Nixon administration’s resistance to its probes led to a constitutional crisis
Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States from 1969 until 1974, when he became the only U.S. president to resign from office. He tried to cover up the Watergate incident.
Ford Pardons Nixon
On this day in 1974, President Gerald Ford, who assumed office on the heels of President Richard M. Nixon’s resignation, pardons his predecessor for his involvement in the Watergate scandal.
David Frost Interview Nixon
were a series of interviews of former U.S. President Richard Nixon conducted by British journalist David Frost, and produced by John Birt. They were recorded and broadcast on television in four programs in 1977. The interviews became the central subject of Peter Morgan's play Frost/Nixon in 2006. Got him to apologize about the watergate
Election of 1980
was the 49th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 4, 1980. The contest was between the Democratic national ticket of incumbent President Jimmy Carter from Georgia and Vice President Walter Mondale from Minnesota, and the Republican national ticket of Ronald Reagan
Iran Hostage Crisis
was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981 after a group of Iranian students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.
Iran hostages. When were they freed?
Freed January 20th, 1981