use of data Flashcards Preview

FOPC Yr 2 > use of data > Flashcards

Flashcards in use of data Deck (32):
1

give 3 medical factors affecting the uptake of care

new symptoms, visible symptoms, increasing severity

2

give 6 non medical factors affecting the uptake of care

crisis, peer pressure, patient beliefs, social class, age, gender, media

3

what are the 3 main aims of epidemiology

description, explanation and disease control

4

define description, explanation and disease control

description - to describe the amount and distribution of disease in human populations. explanation - to elucidate the natural history and identify aetiological factors for disease usually by combining epidemiological data with data from other disciplines eg biochemistry. disease control - to provide the basis on which preventive measures, public health practices and therapeutic strategies can be developed, implemented, monitored and evaluated for the purposes of disease control

5

define description, explanation and disease control

description - to describe the amount and distribution of disease in human populations. explanation - to elucidate the natural history and identify aetiological factors for disease usually by combining epidemiological data with data from other disciplines eg biochemistry. disease control - to provide the basis on which preventive measures, public health practices and therapeutic strategies can be developed, implemented, monitored and evaluated for the purposes of disease control

6

what does epidemiology compare?

compares groups in order to detect differences pointing to aetiological clues, the scope for prevention, and the identification of high risk groups in society

7

define incidence

no. of new cases of a disease in a population in a specified period of time

8

define prevalence

no. of people in a population with a specific disease at a single point in time or in a defined period of time

9

what is the relative risk

measure of the strength of an association between a suspected risk factor and the disease under study. incidence of disease in exposed group divided by incidence of disease in unexposed group

10

what is the relative risk

measure of the strength of an association between a suspected risk factor and the disease under study. incidence of disease in exposed group divided by incidence of disease in unexposed group

11

give some examples of sources of epidemiological data

mortality data, hospital activity stats, cancer stats, accident stats, drug misuse databases

12

define health literacy

people having the knowledge, skills, understanding and confidence to use health information, to be active partners in their care, and to navigate health and social care systems

13

what is the CHADS2 score?

estimates the risk of stroke in patients with AF

14

what are NOACs?

newer drugs not requiring regular blood test monitoring - expensive and not easily reversed

15

what score is used to measure major bleeding risk?

HAS-BLED

16

what are descriptive studies?

they attempt to describe the amount and distribution of a disease in a given population

17

what framework do descriptive studies follow?

time, place, person

18

when are descriptive studies useful?

assessing the effectiveness of screening programmes, generating hypotheses about disease aetiology

19

what is a cross sectional study and give some examples

in cross sectional studies observations are made at a single point in time. disease frequency, survey, prevalence study

20

what is a case control study

two groups of people are compared - a group of individuals who have the disease of interest, and a group of individuals who do not

21

what is a cohort study

baseline data on exposure are collected from a group of people who do not have the disease - the group is then followed through time until a sufficient number have developed the disease

22

what is the definitive method of assessing any new treatment in medicine?

randomised controlled trial

23

what factors should be considered when interpreting results?

standardisation, standardised mortality ratio, quality of data, case definition, coding and classification

24

what is standardisation

a set of techniques used to remove the effects of differences in age or other confounding variables, when comparing two or more populations

25

what is the purpose of case definition?

to decide whether an individual has the condition of interest or not

26

what is bias?

any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth

27

give 4 types of bias

selection bias, information bias, follow up bias, systematic error

28

what is selection bias

occurs when the study sample is not truly representative of the whole study population about which conclusions are to be drawn

29

what is information bias

arises from systematic errors in measuring exposure or disease

30

what is follow up bias

arises when one group of subjects is followed up more assiduously than another to measure disease incidence or other relevant outcome

31

what is systematic error

a form of measurement bias where there is a tendency for measurements to always fall on one side of the true value - may be because an instrument is calibrated wrongly

32

define a confounding factor

one which is associated independently with both the disease and with the exposure under investigation, and so distorts the relationship between the exposure and disease