USMLE Deck1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in USMLE Deck1 Deck (139):
1

Kussmaul's sign

increase in jugular venous pressure on inspiration

2

Filtration Fraction

GFR/RPF

3

GFR

balance of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures

4

DNA Polymerase I

5' to 3' AND 3 to 5 exonuclease activity. 5 to 3 removes RNA primers and damaged DNA.

5

DNA Polymerase III

Has 3 to 5 exonuclease activity only. Fixes mismatched nucleotides in new strands

6

Salicylate acid/base

Causes resp hyperventilation initially AND metabolic acidosis

7

varicocele

varicose veins in spermatic cord

8

RPF

[U]PAH*V / [P]PAH

9

RBF

[U]Creatinine*V / [P]creatining

10

periorbital edema + dark urine

Post strep glomerulonephritis

11

FSH

cAMP

12

ACTH

cAMP

13

TSH

cAMP

14

CRH

cAMP

15

hCG

cAMP

16

ADH (V2)

cAMP

17

MSH

cAMP

18

PTH

cAMP

19

Calcitonin

cAMP

20

GHRH

cAMP

21

Glucagon

cAMP

22

LH

cAMP

23

Prolactin

JAK/STAT

24

GH

JAK/STAT

25

Cytokines

JAK/STAT

26

ANP

cGMP

27

NO

cGMP

28

Insulin

Tyr-K (MAPK)

29

IGF-1

Tyr-K (MAPK)

30

FGF

Tyr-K (MAPK)

31

PDGF

Tyr-K (MAPK)

32

GnRH

IP3

33

Oxytocin

IP3

34

ADH (V1)

IP3

35

TRH

IP3

36

Histamine

IP3

37

Angiotensin II

IP3

38

Gastrin

IP3

39

Vit D

steroid

40

Estrogen

steroid

41

Testosterone

steroid

42

Cortisol

steroid

43

Aldosterone

steroid

44

Progesterone

steroid

45

T3/T4

nuclear steroid receptor

46

GLUT-1

CNS RBCs

47

GLUT-2

Hepatocytes, beta cells

48

GLUT-3

Brain, Kidney, Placenta

49

GLUT - 4

muscle, adipose

50

GLUT-5

Sperm, GI, fructose transport

51

Kallmann

AD, defective development of GnRH cells and olfactory placode

52

Placenta accreta

placenta in myometrium

53

abruptio placentae

fetal detachment of placenta

54

placentia previa

attachment to lower uterine segment

55

obturator

adduction

56

femoral

thigh flex, leg extend

57

common peroneal

foot drop

58

tibial

plantarflexion

59

superior gluteal

Thigh abduction (positive trendelenburg sign)

60

inferior gluteal

can't jump

61

zona occludens

tight junction; prevents diffusion across paracellular space

62

Zona adherens

Intermediate junctions; cytoplasmic filaments radiating from cell membrane to hold adjacent cells together; E-cadherin connects to actin

63

Macula adherens

Desmosome; small sites of attachment; cadherins to intermediate filaments; Autoantibodies-> pemphigus vulgaris; Keratin to Desmoplakin

64

Gap Junction

communication; connexon

65

Hemidesmosome

connects to underlying ECM; Bullous pemphigoid

66

Integrin

Binds to laminin in BM, maintains integrity of BM

67

CREST

Calcinosi, Raynaud's, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodacyly, Telangiectasia; anti-centromere

68

anti-histone

drug-induced lupus (procainamide, hydralazine, isoniazid, D-penicillamine)

69

Anti-SSA anti-SSB

Anti-ro anti-la; Sjogren

70

anti-phospholipid

SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome

71

HLA-B27

Ankylosing spondyliti, reactive arthritis (reiter's), Inflammatory Bowel, Psoriatic arthritis, uveitis

72

anti-Scl-70

Scleroderma; anti-DNA topoisomerase

73

macule

flat discoloration; Tinea versicolor

74

Patch

Macule>1cm

75

Papule

Elevated skin lesion; ie acne vulgaris

76

Plaque

papule>1cm; ie psoriasis

77

Vesicle

small fluid blister; ie chickenpox

78

Keloid

irregular, raised lesion from scar tissue hypertrophy (follows trauma);

79

bulla

Large fluid-containing blister; bullous pemphigoid

80

wheal

transient vesicle; ie hives

81

Pustule

blister with pus

82

crust

dried exudates from vesicle bulla or pustule; ie Impetigo

83

Hyperkaratosis

thickening of stratum corneum

84

parakeratosis

hyperkeratosis with retention of nuclei

85

acatholysis

separation of epidermal cells; ie pemphigus vulgaris

86

Acanthosis

Epidermal hyperplasia

87

Dermatitis

skin inflammation

88

vitiligo

depigmentation of patchy areas; dt loss of melanocytes

89

albinism

normal melanocytes, decreased tyrosinase so low melanin; can be defective migration of neural crest

90

melasma

hyperpigmentation dt pregnancy or OCP use

91

acanthosis nigricans

insulin resistance (increased IGF stimulate epidermis); Malignancy of GI or GU tract (Gastric most common)

92

Holocrine

secretes discharge of entire secretory cells that undergo breakdown to release secretory product

93

Eccrine

in skin through most of body. Secretes watery fluid of NaCl "sweat"

94

Apocrine

in dermis and subcu fat and breat areolae, axillae, genital. Secrete membran bound sweat into their hair follicles rather then skin surface. Innervated by adrenergics of sympathetic. Become malodorous secondary to skin bacteria

95

Paracrine

similar to endocrine but reach target cells by diffusion through extracellular space

96

Purpurae

cutaneous or subcutaneous collections of extravasated blood less than 1 cm

97

Petechiae

cutaneous collections of extravasated blood less than 5mm. Not palpable, appear in areas of increased venous pressure

98

Lentigos

tan or brown macules most often seen on sun-exposed skin of a middle-aged person

99

Telangiectasias

small folac permanent dilations of superficial capillaries and venules. Found in skin or mucous membranes. Will blanch

100

Ecchymoses

Hemorrhagic lesions (bruises), do not blanch. Cutaneous is a cutaneous or subcutaneous collection of extravasated blood at least 1 cm. Order or increasing size: petechiae, purpura, and ecchymoses.

101

BRAF mutation

Melanoma: Valine replaced by glutamate

102

Verrucae

Warts. Epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, koilocytosis. HPV

103

Urticaria

Hives. Pruritic wheals (transient vesicle) post mast cell degranulation

104

Ephelis

Freckle. Increased melanin production

105

first gen cef

cefazolin, cephalexin

106

2nd gen cef

cefaclor, cefoxitin, cefuroxime

107

3rd gen cef

ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime

108

4th gen

cefipime

109

Bartonella spp.

Cat scratch fever

110

Borrelia burgdorferi

Lyme; Ixodes tick

111

Borrelia recurrentis

Recurrent fever; Louse

112

Brucella spp.

Brucelosis/undulant fever; Unpasteurized dairy (Like Listeria)

113

Campylobacter

bloody diarrhea; puppies, livestock, fecal oral, sexual

114

Chlamydophila psittaci

Psittacosis; Parrots, birds

115

Coxiella burnetii

Q fever; SPORE inhalation from cattle placenta and tick feces

116

Ehrlichiosis chaffeensis

Ehrlichiosis; Lone star tick

117

Francisella tularensis

Tularemia; Ticks, rabbits, deer fly

118

Leptospira spp.

Leptospirosis; animal urine

119

Mycobacterium leprae

Leprosy; armadillos

120

Pasteurella multocida

cellulitis, osteomyelitis; animal bite, cat, dog

121

Rickettsia prowazekii

Epidemic typhus; Louse

122

Rickettsia Rickettsii

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever; Dermacentor tick bite

123

Rickettsia typhus

Endemic typhus; fleas

124

Yersinia pestis

Plauge; flea bite, rodent, PRAIRIE DOG

125

Rash on palms and soles

secondary syphillis, coxsackie A, and Rocky mountain spotted fever

126

spore composition

keratin coat; dipicolinic acid

127

DNA viruses

Herpes, Hepadna, Adeno, Polyo, Papilloma, Pox, Parvo

128

Enveloped DNA viruses

Herpes, Hepadno, Pox

129

Circular DNA

Hepadna, Polyo, Papillo

130

Facultative intracellular organisms

Salmonella, Neisseria, Leigonella, Yersinia, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Brucella

131

Anthrax toxin

Edema factor (calmodulin dependent adenylate cyclase that increases cAMP) and lethal factor

132

Pertussis Toxin

Edema-like factor that enters cells and causes increase in cAMP leading to decreased neutrophil function just as edema factor for anthrax

133

Shiga toxin

Cleaves rRNA from 60S ribosome. Can lead to HUS

134

diphtheriae toxin

Like Exotoxin A from Pseudomonas; ADP-Ribosylation of EF-2

135

Heat labile toxin

Increases cAMP by activating adenylate cyclase

136

Heat Stable toxin

Increases cGMP by overstimulating guanylate cyclase

137

Yersinia toxin

Increases cGMP by overstimulating guanylate cyclase

138

cholera toxin

Increases cAMP by irreversibly activating Gs

139

Pertussis toxin

Increases cAMP by acting like Adenylat Cyclase enzyme