USMLE Road Map - Neck I Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > USMLE Road Map - Neck I > Flashcards

Flashcards in USMLE Road Map - Neck I Deck (78):

Which bones are in the visceral compartment of the neck?

1. Hyoid bone.
2. The suprahyoid + infrahyoid muscles.
3. Pharynx.
4. Esophagus.
5. Larynx.
6. Trachea.


The pretracheal layer of deep cervical fascia encloses ...?

Structures in the visceral compartment of the neck.


The buccopharyngeal fascia is a continuation of ...?

Pretracheal fascia, which surrounds the posterior aspect of the pharynx and esophagus.


The prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia encloses structures in the ...?

Vertebral compartment of the neck.


The prevertebral layer is separated from the buccopharyngeal fascia by the ...?

Retropharyngeal space.


The retropharyngeal space is a ...?



Structures in the visceral compartment of the neck covered by pretracheal fascia glide against ...?

The prevertebral fascia during shallowing.


An infection in the retropharyngeal space may spread ...?

Inferiorly into the superior mediastinum.


Both compartment of the neck (visceral and vertebral) are partially covered by 2 superficial muscles:

1. Trapezius.
2. SCM.


The superficial cervical fascia contains the ...?

Platysma - A muscle of facial expression.


The carotid sheath is situated between the ...?

Vertebral and visceral compartments of the neck.


The sheath is formed by contributions from the:

1. Pretracheal.
2. Prevertebral.
3. Investing layers of deep cervical fascia.


The common carotid branches at the upper border of the ...?

Thyroid cartilage.


The external carotid has ... branches in the neck and ends posterior to the mandible by dividing into a ... and a ... .

6 branches.
Ends posterior to the mandible by dividing into a superficial temporal artery and a maxillary artery.


The superior thyroid artery supplies the ...?

Thyroid gland and gives rise to the superior laryngeal artery, which passes through the thyrohyoid membrane to supply the laryngopharynx and larynx.


The ascending pharyngeal artery arises from the ...?

Posterior part of the external carotid and supplies the pharynx.


The lingual artery passes deep to the ...?

Mylohyoid to supply the tongue.


The facial artery passes deep to the ...?

Submandibular gland --> Crosses the body of the mandible --> Supplies the facial muscles and skin up to the medial corner of the eye.


The occipital artery is crossed by the ...?

Hypoglossal nerve and supplies the posterior neck and posterior scalp.


The posterior auricular artery supplies the ...?

Posterior scalp.


The internal jugular vein is formed ...?

Just inferior to the jugular foramen at the junction of the inferior petrosal sinus and the sigmoid sinus.


The internal jugular vein receives the ...?

1. Facial.
2. Lingual.
3. Pharyngeal.
4. Middle thyroid veins.


The vagus nerve courses through the length of the neck ...?

In the carotid sheath posterior to the internal jugular vein and the common carotid artery.


The cervical part of the sympathetic trunk lies ...?

Posterior and medial to the carotid sheath and contains:
1. Superior.
2. Middle.
3. Inferior.
cervical sympathetic ganglia.


The superior cervical ganglion receives preganglionic sympathetic axons mainly from ...?

The T1 segment of the spinal cord.


The superior cervical ganglion gives rise to ...?

Postganglionic sympathetic axons, which supply sweat glands and vascular smooth muscle in the face and scalp, and innervate the dilator pupillae and superior tarsal muscles in the orbit.


Postganglionic sympathetic axons from the superior cervical ganglion form ...?

Periarterial plexuses, which courses with the internal land external carotid arteries and their branches.
--> Gives rise to gray rami that course with branches of the C1 through C4 spinal nerves supplying the neck.


The inferior cervical ganglion is frequently fused with the ...?

1st thoracic ganglion to form the stellate ganglion.


The inferior cervical ganglion gives rise to .../

Gray rami that course with branches of the C7 and C8 ventral rami supplying the upper limb.


What may be performed in patients who exhibit excessive vasoconstriction or sweating in the upper limb?

A stellate ganglion block.


Which lesions may cause Horner's?

1. A lesion of the stellate ganglion.
2. The cervical part of the sympathetic trunk.
3. The superior cervical ganglion.
--> All may cause Horner.


The visceral compartment of the neck is ...?

Anterior and extends from the base of the skull to the thoracic outlet.


The posterior triangle of the neck is bounded by ...?

1. Trapezius.
2. The posterior border of the SCM.
3. The clavicle.


The floor of the posterior triangle contains ...?

1. Anterior scalene.
2. Middle scalene.
3. Posterior scalene.
4. Levator scapulae.
5. Splenius capitis muscles.
--> Covered by prevertebral fascia.


The roof of the posterior triangle is formed by ...?

The investing layer of deep cervical fascia.


The external jugular vein - Course:

1. Crosses the SCM obliquely.
2. Pierces the investing fascia.
3. Drains into the subclavian vein.


The external jugular vein is formed by the union of the ...?

Posterior auricular and the retromandibular veins.


The subclavian vein passes ...?

Anterior to the phrenic nerve and the anterior scalene.


The suprascapular, transverse cervical, and occipital arteries course through ...?

The posterior triangle.


The suprascapular and transverse cervical arteries arise from the ...?

Thyrocervical trunk of the subclavian --> pass anterior to the anterior scalene and phrenic nerve, and cross the posterior triangle.


Lesions of the accessory nerve inferior to the jugular foramen may ALSO ...?

Result in weakness of the SCM.
--> Patients may have a decreased ability to turn the chin to the side OPPOSITE the lesioned nerve.


The phrenic nerve courses ...?

On the anterior surface of the anterior scalene muscle deep to prevertebral fascia.


The cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus emerge ...?

Posterior to the SCM approx. halfway between its sternal and mastoid attachments.


The cutaneous branches arise from the ventral rami of the ...?

C1-C4 spinal nerves and pierce the investing and superficial fascia.


The cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus - Nerves contained?

1. The great auricular (C2-C3).
2. The lesser occipital (C2).
3. The transverse cervical nerve (C2-C3).
4. The supraclavicular nerves (C2-C4).


The cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus supply the ...?

1. Skin of the anterior and lateral neck, including skin over the angle of the mandible.
2. Skin of the scalp posterior to the vertex of the skull - the coronal plane through the most superior aspect of the cranium.


The anterior triangle of the neck is bounded by the ...?

1. Anterior border of the SCM.
2. The anterior midline.
3. The mandible.


The anterior triangle contains structures in the ... compartment of the neck.



The hyoid bone is situated in the anterior triangle at the level of the ...?



The infrahyoid muscles consists of 4 pairs of strap-like muscles that have attachments to the:

1. Sternum.
2. Scapula.
3. Thyroid cartilage.
4. Hyoid bone.


The infrahyoid muscles include:

1. The sternohyoid.
2. The sternothyroid.
3. The superior and inferior bellies of omohyoid.
4. The thyrohyoid.


The infrahyoid muscles are innervated by ...?

Muscular branches of the cervical plexus by either the ansa cervicalis (sternohyoid, sternothyroid, superior and inferior bellies of omohyoid) or C1 fibers (thyrohyoid).


The ansa cervicalis constists of ...?

A superior root from the C1 ventral ramus that hitchhikes with the hypoglossa nerve.


The ansa cervicalis also has an inferior root from the ...?

C2 and C3 ventral rami that joins with the superior root anterior to the carotid sheath.


The suprahyoid muscles have attachements to the ...?

1. Styloid process.
2. Mandible.
3. Hyoid bone.


The suprahyoid muscles include:

1. Geniohyoid.
2. Mylohyoid.
3. Stylohyoid.
4. Anterior/posterior bellies of the digastric.


The suprahyoid muscles are innervated by branches of the ...?

1. Trigeminal nerve (mylohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric).
2. Facial nerve (CN VII) - Stylohyoid and posterior belly of digastric.
3. C1 fibers from the cervical plexus (geniohyoid).


The pharynx is a ...?

Fibromuscular tube that extends from the nasal cavity to the cricoid cartilage at the level of the C6.


The pharynx consists of ...?

1. Nasopharynx.
2. Oropharynx.
3. Laryngopharynx.


Location of the nasopharynx:

Superior to the soft palate and posterior to the nasal cavity.


The lateral wall of the nasopharynx contains the ...?

1. Opening of the auditory tube.
2. Levator veli palatini.
3. Tensor veli palatini.
4. Salpingopharyngeus.


The mucosa of the nasopharynx is innervated by ...?

1. The pharyngeal nerve (V2).
2. Branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve in the pharyngeal plexus.


Location of oropharynx:

Situated between the soft palate and the tip of the epiglottis, posterior to the oral cavity.


The lateral wall of the oropharynx contains the ...?

Palatoglossal arches and the palatopharyngeal arches, which are separated by the tonsillar fossa.


The palatoglossal arches contain ...?

The palatoglossal muscles.


The palatopharyngeal arches contain the ...?

Palatopharyngeal muscles.


The tonsillar fossa contains the ...

Palatine tonsil and is crossed by the lingual branch of the IX.


The floor of the oropharynx contains ...?

The posterior 1/3 of the tongue.
--> Both taste and general sensations from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue are carried by the lingual branches of the IX.


The laryngopharynx extends from the ...?

Epiglottis behind the larynx to the level of the cricoid cartilage.
--> Inferior to the cricoid cartilage, the laryngopharynx is continuous with the esophagus.


The lateral wall of the laryngopharynx contains ...?

The piriformis recess.


Which structures course in the wall of the piriform recess?

1. The internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve of the vagus.
2. The superior laryngeal artery.


The mucosa of the laryngopharynx is innervated by the ...?

Internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve of the vagus.


The pharynx consists of skeletal muscles that form ...?

An outer circular layer and an inner longitudinal layer.


The circular layer is formed by ...?

3 muscles --> Superior/middle/inferior constrictor muscles - That overlap and interdigitate in the posterior midline at the pharyngeal raphe.


The inner longitudinal muscle layer is formed by ...?

3 longitudinal muscles:
1. Salpingopharyngeus.
2. Palatopharyngeus.
3. Stylopharyngeus.
--> Expand and insert into the pharyngeal wall.


The 3 longitudinal muscles ... the pharynx during shallowing.



All of the muscles of the pharynx are innervated by ...?

Branches of the vagus nerve through the pharyngeal plexus EXCEPT --> Stylopharyngeus, which is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve.


The inferior constrictor is also innervated by the ...?

External laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal branches of the vagus.