UTI Microbiology Flashcards Preview

Renal and Urology > UTI Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in UTI Microbiology Deck (49):
1

Which part of the urinary system is sterile normally

the kidneys
ereter
bladder and the urine contained in it

2

What bacteria is colonised normally in the urethra

coliforms
enterococci

3

What is a UTI

the presence of micro organisim in the urinary tract that are causing clinical infection

4

Where is a lower UTI

infection in the bladder and urethra

5

where is an upper uti

ureters and or the kidney

6

what is a complicated UTI

complicated by systemic sepsis or urinary structural abnormaloties or stones

7

What is bacteriurea

the presence of bacteria in the urine (does not always mean infection esp in eldery or catheterised patients)

8

what is cystitis

inflammation of the bladder

9

Why are women more likely to get UTIs than men

short wider urethra
proximity of urethra to anus
increased risk with sexual activity, pregnancy

10

what are the two routes of infection

ascending
from bloodstream

11

which organism is associated with calculi

proteus

12

Why does proteus predispose to calculi

produces urease which breaks down urea to form ammonia
increased urinary pH
precipiation of salts
foul smelling

13

What organism is associated with catheter use

pseudomonas aeruginosa

14

what is the only antibiotics which can treat pseudomonas

ciprofloxacin

15

what is the ideal specimen collection method of urine

Mid stream specimen of urine

16

What container is the best to transport urine in

boricon - contains boric acid
stops bacteria multipling
works for around 24hrs

17

how soon must urine in a sterile universal container reach the lab

2 hours

18

what does leukocyte esterase indicate

presence of WBC in urine

19

what indicated bacteria in urine

nitrites

20

What does not give a positive nitirite test

enterococcus

21

what group of people is kass;s criteria used for

women of child bearing age

22

What do you need to have a genuine UTI

more than 10 to the five orgs/mL of pure growth of ONE organism

23

Is a mixed growth significant

no growth of 2 or more organisms is not usally significant even if it is more than 10 to the 5 org/mL

24

what is ESBL

extended spectrum beta lactamase

25

what is the effect of ESBL

makes bacteria resistant to all cephlasporins

26

What is CPE

carbapenemase producing enterobacteriaceae
gram negative coliform bacilli that are resistant to meropenem (usually means resistant to all antibiotics)

27

What is the ideal antobiotic for a UTI

excreted in the urine i high concentrations
oral
inexpensive
few side effects

28

How does trimethoprim work

inhibits bacterial folic acid synthesis

29

What is there a risk of if using co trimoxazole

stevens johnson syndrome

30

what organism cannot be treated with trimethoprim

pseudomonas

31

Why is niitrofurantoin only useful in lower UTI

only reaches effectove concentration in the bladder

32

What can gentamicin cause

renal problems
vestibulocochlear nerve damage

33

how long can gentamicin be prescribed

three days

34

What is the empirical antibiotic treatment for a female lower UTI

trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin for three days

35

What is the empirical treatment of an uncatheterised male UTI

same as female but for 7 days

36

What is the treatment of a complicated UTI or pyelonephritis in the commmunity

co amoxiclav or cotrimoxazole (14 days)

37

What is the treatment of a complicated UTI or pyelonephritis in hospital

amoxicillin and gentamicin IV for 3 days (co trimoxazole and gentamicin if penicillin allergy)

38

What is the risk of an intreated asymptomatic bacterurea iin preganancy

pyelonephritis
growth retardation
premature labour

39

what is abacterial cystitis

patient has symptoms of a uti and puss cells in urine but no growth on culture

40

what are the possible causes of abacterial cystitis

early phase UTI
urethral trauma
STI

41

how can you relieve tthe symptoms of abacterial cystitis

alkanising the urine

42

What anti biotics has good activity against ESBLa

pivmecillinam
temocillin

43

when is temocillin particularly useful

in treating patients who have a renal function that is too poor to cope with gentamicin (its not as good as gentamicint hough)

44

what antibiotic is cefalexin

cephlasporin

45

What organisms cannot be treated with nitrofurantoin

proteus
pseudomonas

46

What organisms cannot be treated with gentamicin

enterococci

47

What antibiotics are safe in pregancy

cephlosporins ie cefalexin
co amoxiclav
trimethoprim in 2/3rd trimesters only
nitrofurantoin (avoid in late pregnancy and breasfeeding)

48

What are the risks of cefalexin

broad specturum - c difficile
not effective for pseudomonas

49

What antibiotics are safe in pregancy

cephlosporins ie cefalexin
co amoxiclav
trimethoprim in 2/3rd trimesters only
nitrofurantoin (avoid in late pregnancy and breastfeeding)