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Flashcards in UTIs I and II Deck (68)
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1

What is the most common cause of all UTIs?

E. coli

2

What is the second most common cause of UTIs?

S. saprophyticus

3

Staphylococcus saprophyticus:

Coagulase-negative

4

What is the third most common cause of UTIs?

Proteus mirabilis

5

What is proteus mirabilis?

Urease positive enterobe

6

What do urease positive bacteria do?

Convert urea to carbon dioxide and ammonia causing alkalization of urine

7

What stones form in alkaline urine?

Struvite (NH4MgPO4x6H2O)

8

What is the most important risk factor on bacteria for UTIs?

Fimbriae

9

Most common E. coli to cause UTI?

Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC)

10

What causes most UTI in men?

Prostate inflammation

11

Why don't you use urine in a catheter bag?

Bacteria multiply in the urine and human cells disintegrate in the urine

12

What are the three lower UTI symptoms of irritation?

Dysuria: burning pain
Urgency
Frequency of micturition

13

Why aren't antibodies produced in lower UTIs?

It is a superficial infection

14

Important symptoms in an upper UTI?

Fever
Lower back pain
Vomiting

15

What often causes renal abscesses?

Staphylococcus aureus

16

What drugs do you give for upper and lower respectively?

Upper: non-oral (vomiting)
Lower: oral

17

What is pyuria?

Pus cells in the urine

18

What threshold of bacteriuria denotes a UTI?

100,000/mL of urine

19

What does one bacteria predominating the urine suggest?

UTI

20

What does more than one bacteria making up the 100,000/mL?

Contamination of the sample somehow not necessarily an UTI

21

What can cause sterile pyuria?

M. tuberculosis
Chlamydia

22

What type of stones does proteus mirabilis cause?

Struvite and calcium carbonate

23

What does the oxidase test distinguish between?

Enterobes (negative) and pseudomonas (positive)

24

What is found in all enterobes?

Nitrate reduction (nitrate to nitrite)

25

What can a urease test distinguish between?

E. coli and Proteus mirabilis

26

What are the lactose fermenters?

E. coli
K. pneumoniae
E. aerogenes

27

What color are the lactose fermenters on McConkey agar?

Red

28

What is staphylococcus' coagulase test?

Positive

29

What is streptococcus' coagulase test?

Negative

30

Three antibiotics to treat UTI?

1.) Bactrim (SMZ-TMP)
2.) Nitrofurantoin
3.) Quinolones