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Flashcards in Uworld Exam 12 Deck (63):
1

What does Ubiquitin do? What is the result of a mutation in ubiquitin?

Ubiquitin=labels proteins for degradation by proteasomes
Mutation=>misfolded proteins accumulating

2

opioid withdrawal, what are its symptoms?

pupillary dilatation, rhinorrhea, sneeziing, nasal stuffiness, diarrhea

3

Tx of opioid withdrawal?

Give some opioids

4

COX-1 helps maintain what?

gastric mucosa by mucous

5

Main Reason to use a COX-2 Inhibitor (celecoxib)?

Prevent gastric ulcerations and reduced risk of bleeding

6

kinesin and dyenin are associated with what functional unit?

Microtubules

7

Topoisomerase I and II do what?

relieve unwinding tension

8

RNA primase does what? What is its purpose?

provides a primer to free up a free 3'OH group

9

What does DNA polymerase I do?

removes RNA primer and exonuclease

10

What does DNA polymerase III do?

Causes elongation

11

Transformation is?

Taking up of naked DNA by cell

12

Reassortment is?

Sudden Change in antigen by mixing two normal viruses

13

Recombination is?

Defective viruses mixing and becoming virulent

14

Linear Mucosal Tear in alcoholics with hematemesis?

Mallory Weiss Tear

15

Transmural Mucosal Tear with esophageal air/fluid leakage NOT blood?

Boerhaave Syndrome

16

Mallory Weiss Tear leads to what Acid Base disturbance?

metabolic alkalosis

17

Phase 4 consists of spontaneous depolarizations that are due to what three things?

1. K+ channel closure
2. Na+ funny channel opening
3. L-type Ca2+ channels opening

18

Horseshoe kidney trapped by?

IMA

19

What traps SMA?

Transverse duodenum

20

In Patients with myasthenia gravis, what other extramuscular abnormality exists?

abnormalities of the thymus (thymoma, thymic hyperplasia)

21

Patient who complains of weakness and heaviness in her eyelids at the end of the day or an activity?

MG

22

What muscles are most susceptible in a patient with MG?

Extraocular muscles

23

Where does Thymus originate from? What other organ is with it in this pouch?

3rd pouch,
Inferior parathyroid glands

24

Spherules containing endospores?

Coccidioides

25

Who kills cells that don;t have MHC class I?

NK Cells

26

How do NK cells kill?

With Perforin and Granzymes to induce apoptosis

27

NK cells exhibit what CD?

CD 16 and 56

28

Are NK cells present in Athymic patients? Do they have memory?

Yes
No

29

NK cells are activated by what two cytokines?

IL-12 IFN-gamma

30

What ions regulate electrical potential?

Na, K and Cl

31

In resting membrane, where are the main ions located in a cell? Extracellular or Intracellular?

Na-Extracellular
K-Intracellular
Cl-Extracellular

32

Gram negative cocci in pairs suggests what organism?

Neisseria meningitidis

33

Best drug for prophylaxis of neisseria?

Rifampin

34

Rifampin MOA?

RNA

35

Coagulopathies like increased PTT or PT are from what kind of bleeding?

deep tissue bleeding-joints, muscles

36

Platelet defects shows as what kind of bleeding?

mucocutaneous bleeding (epistaxis, petechiae)

37

Prolonged PT? what pathway is wrong?

EX

38

Prolonged PTT? what pathway is wrong?

INT

39

Absolute Risk Reduction formula?

Event rate in Control-Event Rate in treatment

40

ALA synthase requires what cofactor?

B6

41

Passive Extension of the arm, there is initial resistance followed by a sudden release of tension as extension continued. What is this phenomenon called? Where do you see this symptom?

Clasp-knife spasticity
UMN Lesions

42

Internal capsule stroke will lead to what kind of symptoms?

Pure Motor: Contralateral arm, leg and lower face weakness

43

Lesion in caudate nucleus will lead to?

EPS symptoms like chorea and athetosis

44

QRS prolongation is due to what class of antiarrythmic drug?

Class 1

45

With a stable set of incidence, how do you increase prevalence?

Increased quality of care

46

Tet Spells help increase? To improve what?

systemic vascular resistance, oxygenation

47

With all urea cycle disorders, what do you food do you need to restrict?

Protein

48

Muscle weakness and fatigue with a particular ion?

K+

49

What 3 cytokines mediate inflammation?

IL-1, IL-6, and TNF alpha

50

LTB4, C5a, IL-8, 5-HETE are what kind of agents? These mediate the accumulation of?

chemotactic
Pus

51

anticoagulated RBCs fall at a rate of 35 mm per hour?

ESR

52

Sulfonyureas MOA?

MOA: bind to ATP dependent K+channels

53

Somatostatin is produced by?

D cells

54

Exogenous Insulin vs insulinoma?

Serum Insulin both elevated
C-peptide decreased in Exogenous insulin
BUT NOT in Insulinoma

55

Holoproscencephaly is due to?

Malformation

56

In chronic diabetics DM2 what do you see in their islet cells?

Amylin (amyloid)

57

DM is related to what HLA?

DR3, DR4

58

Neurological deficit, marked pallor (anemia)?

B12 def=>megaloblastic anemia

59

CN 7 has what symptoms?

1. Facial Motor Output symptoms
2. Parasymp. innervation to lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual
3. 2/3 of taste of tongue
4. external auditory canal

60

Live Attenuated Virus?

Live! One night only! See small yellow
rotating chickens get vaccinated with Sabin
and MMR! It’s incredible
Smallpox, yellow fever, rotavirus, chickenpox (VZV), Sabin polio virus, MMR, Influenza (intranasal)

61

ABC Enzymes?

Pyruvate Carboxylase
Propionyl Co-A Carboxylase
Acetyl Co-A Carboxylase

62

Halothane AE?

Fulminant Hepatitis

63

T. Cruzi can cause?

Achalasia