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Flashcards in uworld factoids Deck (65):
1

skeletal manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism

osteitis fibrosa cystica

2

brown pigment stones - cause

due to infections of the biliary tract - bacteria release beta-glucuronidase that increases the amount of unconjugated bilirubin in bile

3

succinylcholine can cause significant release of what electrolyte

potassium (can lead to arryhtmias)

4

consequence of biliary hypomotility

biliary sludge

5

congenital toxoplasmosis transmission

in utero

6

medullary carcinoma of the thyroid - histology

amyloid formed by calcitonin secreted from neoplastic parafollicular C cells

7

single palmar crease

trisomy 21

8

local defense against candida is carried out by

T cells

9

systemic infection of candida is prevented by

neutrophils

10

imperforate anus occurs with what other abnormalities

urinary tract defects

11

direct inguinal hernia occurs due to breakdown of what?

transversalis fascia

12

baroreceptors transmit their information to what part of the brain?

solitary nucleus of the medulla

13

hypertension race risk

black>white>asian

14

what causes abdominal aortic aneuryms?

atherosclerosis

15

what causes thoracic aortic aneurysm?

tertiary syphilis, marfans

16

tertiary sysphilis causes thoracic abdominal aneurysm how

endarteritis of vasa vasorum

17

how does HTN cause aortic dissection

hypertrophy of vasa vasorum

18

markedly different bp in both arms

aortic dissection

19

hemophilia B inheritance pattern

X linked recessive

20

huntingtons inheritance pattern

autosomal dominant

21

classical galactosemia inheritance pattern

autosomal recessive

22

lesch nyhan inheritance pattern

x linked recessive

23

LHON inheritance

mitochondrial

24

top 1/3 of ureters are supplied by what artery?

renal artery

25

whats the most common cardiomyopathy

dilated cardiomyopathy

26

what type of mutation is associated with dilated cardiomyopathy?

autosomal dominant

27

causes of dilated cardiomyopathy

ABCCCD, HSP

alcohol abuse
beri beri (wet)
chagas
cocaine
coxsackie a/b myocarditis
doxorubicin
hemochromotosis
sarcoidosis
pregnancy (late)

28

type of hypertrophy seen in dilated cardiomypoathy

eccentric
sarcomeres added in series

29

what extra heart sound is heard with dilated cardiomyopathy?

S3

30

what extra heart sound is heard with hypertrophic cardiomoypoathy?

s4

31

most common cause of death in freidrich's ataxia

HOCM

32

beta-myosin heavy chain mutation

hocm

33

classic histology finding in hOCM

myofibrillar disarray and fibrosis

34

low voltage EKG with diminshed QRS amplitude

restrictive cardiomyopathy

35

most common cause of bacterial endocarditis in IVDA

staph aureus
(less common, psuedomonas, candida)

36

bacterial endocarditis associated with prosthetic valves

staph epidermidis

37

bacterial endocarditis associated with people with underlying colorectal carcinoma

strep bovis

38

most common overall bacterial cause for bacterial endocarditis

strep viridans

39

culture negative bacterial endocarditis organisms

HACEK
haemophilus
actinobacillus
cardiobacterium
eikenella
kingella

40

PSGN can occur after

strep pharyngitis OR strep impetigo

41

rheumatic fever can occur after

strep pharyngitis ONLY

42

mechanism of acute rheumatic fever?

molecular mimicry between bacterial m proteins and proteins found in human tissue

43

histology of myocarditis in acute rheumatic fever

aschoff bodies = giant cells with fibrinoid material with anitschkow cells inside (slender wavy nuclei)

44

aschoff bodies = giant cells with fibrinoid material with anitschkow cells inside (slender wavy nuclei)

acute rheumatic fever

45

fish mouth appearance of valves

chronic rheumatic fever

46

heart problems in acute vs. chronic rheumatic fever

acute = regurgitation
chronic = stenosis (fusion of commissures)

47

hyperdynamic circulation occurs in what abnormality

aortic regurgitation

48

whats pulsus paradoxus

decrease of BP by > 10 mmhg upon inspiration
seen in cardiac tamponade

49

becks triad

1) hypotension
2) distant heart sounds
3) jvd

cardiac tamponade

50

most common primary cardiac tumor in children

rhabdomyoma (tuberous sclerosis)
seen in venricle

51

most common location of cardiac myxoma

atria- usually LA

52

Whats the most common cardiac tumor

metastasis, usually from: breast, lung, melanoma, lymphoma

53

diastolic tumor plop sound

cardiac myxoma

54

cardiac tumor with gelatinous appearance and abundant ground tissue on histology

myxoma

55

difference between bacillary angiomatosis and kaposi sarcoma

bacillary = neutrophillic infiltrate
kaposi = lymphocytic infiltratie

56

pvc exposure predisposes to

angiosarcoma

57

arsenic exposure predisposes to

angiosarcoma

58

radiation cancer treatment MOA

double stranded DNA breaks and formation of oxygen free radicals

59

anaphylactic response to transfused blood products

selective immunoglobulin deficiency

60

where is the area postrema of the brain

dorsal medulla (midbrain) below pons and in the back of the brainstem

61

postauricular lymphadenopathy

rubella (togavirus) - german measles

62

persistent lymphedema with chronic dilatation of lymphatic channels predisposes to what cancer

lymphangiosarcoma

63

cancer that may arise 10 years after radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection with breast cancer

lymphangiosarcoma

64

cardiac tissue conduction fastest to slowest

Purkinje > atrial > ventricular > AV node

65

what causes increase in insulin resistance in overweight individuals?

FFA and serum triglycerides