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Flashcards in UWorld_3.20 Deck (19)
1

Antifungal that inhibits fungal cell wall synthesis

  • Capsofungin
  • inhibits synthesis of cell wall polysaccharide glucan

2

HbA = 

HbF = 

Gower = 

  • A = alpha2-beta2
  • F = alpha2-gamma2
  • gower = zeta2-epilson2
    • @ embryonic sac, before liver produces HbF

3

Phenytoin SE/toxicity

  1. CNS effects ==> cerebeller defects/ataxia
  2. gingival hyperplasia
    1. pheny ==> increased PDGF ==> stimulated macs to proliferate gingiva and alveolar bone
  3. coarsening of facial features, hirstruism
  4. interferes w/folic acid metabolism ==> megaloblastic anemia
  5. induces P450
  6. teratogen ==> fetal hydantoin syndrome

4

Common bacteria found in alcoholics with pneumonia + tx?

  • anaeorobic = bacteriodes, prevotella, fusobacterium + aerobic
  • ==> abcesses and necrotizing infections 
  • clindamycin = covers anaerobes and gram positive (e.g s. pneumo)

5

Benzodiazepine: duration of actions

Triazolam

Lorazepam

Diazepam

Flurazepam

Chlordiazepoxide

  • T = short
  • Lor = intermediate
  • diaz = long
  • flur = long
  • chlor = long

6

Common CNS-releated complication in premature neonates

  • intraventricular hemorrhage @ germinal matrix ==> ventricular system 
  • ==> neurodevelopmenal impairment
  • higher risk with earlier born and lower weight

7

Secretin @ pancreas

bicarbonate secretion

8

Maternal rubella ==> problems @ mom? problems @ baby?

  • mom = head/neck rash ==> extremities + postauricular/occiital lymphadenopathy + polyarthritis/arthralgia
  • fetal infection ==> sensorneural deafness, cataracts, cardiac malform (PDA)

9

Folate vs. Vit B12 megaloblastic anemia

  • homocysteine elevated in both
    • cobalamin (vit B12) and methyl tetrahydrofolate (folic acid) used to convert homocystein to methionine
  • methylmalonyl CoA elevated ONLY in B12
  • neurodegen in ONLY B12

10

Major virulence factor of S. pyogens

M protein ==I phagocytosis and complement activated

11

High levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate ==>

  • induces glycolysis by inducing PFK-1
  • inhibits gluconeogenesis

12

Phenelzine: drug class, use, other similar drugs

  • MAOIs
  • Atypical depression = mood reactivity (to positive events), leaden fatigue, rejection sensitivity, increased sleep and apetite
  • others
    • tranylcypromine

13

Rare, serious side effect of ACE-i

  • angioedema = face, lips, tonuge, eyelids, larygneal edema ==> difficulty breathing
  • most likely due to elevated bradykinin levels

14

SE: Orange/red body fluids ==> drug + MOA?

  • Rifampin
  • ihibits DNA-dependent RNA synthesis (bacterial RNA pol)

15

Acute TB tx

  • isoniazid
  • pyrazinamide
  • ethambutol and/or streptomycin

16

Mechanism of PAH

  • two-hit hypothesis
  • abnormal BMPR2 gene = first insult; predisposes to pulmonary vasc disease
  • second insult ==> disease process = vascular smooth musle proliferation ==> elevated pulm pressure

17

Reticulotcyte appearance on staining

  • immature RBC
  • larger than RBC
  • bluish <== residual ribosomal RNA

18

Urticaria ==> histo findings?

dermal edema

19

obturator n. = course + innervation

  • only major n. through obturator foramen
  • innervates adductor m. of thigh
  • may be injured during pelvic surgery (e.g. lymph node dissection)

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