V - Topnotch Pharma Flash Cards - Drugs for Blood and Coagulation Preview

topnotch > V - Topnotch Pharma Flash Cards - Drugs for Blood and Coagulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in V - Topnotch Pharma Flash Cards - Drugs for Blood and Coagulation Deck (81):
1

Required for the biosynthesis of heme and heme containing proteins, including hemoglobin and myoglobin; For Iron deficiency anmia, iron supplementation

Ferrous sulfate, Ferrous gluconate, Ferrous Fumarate, Iron dextran, Sodiun Ferric Gluconate complex, Iron sucrose (TOPNOTCH)

2

Chelates excess iron; For acute and chronic iron poisoning

Deferoxamine, Deferasirox (TOPNOTCH)

3

Cofactor required for essential enzymatic reactions that form tetrahydrofolate, convert homocysteine to methionine and metabolize methymalonyl-CoA; For vitamin B12 deficiency, megaloblastic anemia

Cyanocobalamin, Hydroxocobalamin (TOPNOTCH)

4

Precursor of an essential donor of methyl groups used for synthesis of amino acids, purines and deoxynucleotide; For Megaloblastic anemia, prevention of neutral tube defects(spina bifida), prevention of coronary artery disease

Folic acid (TOPNOTCH)

5

Agonist of erythropoietin receptors expressed by red cell progenitors; For Anemia, associated with chronic renal failure, cancer, HIV infection and prematurity

Epoetin Alfa, Darbepoetin alfa, Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol- Epoetin Beta (TOPNOTCH)

6

Binds receptors on myeloid progenitors and stimulates cell maturation and proliferation ; Accelerates neutrophil recovery and reduces incidence of infection; For neutrophenia associated with chemotheraphy, myelodysplasia, and aplastic anemia

(G-CSF) Filgrastim, Sargamostim (GM-CSF), Pegfilgrastim (TOPNOTCH)

7

Recombinant form of an endogenous cytokine; activates IL -11 receptors ; For secondary prevention of thrombocytopenia in patients undergoing chemotheraphy

Oprelvekin(IL-11),Thrombopoietin (TOPNOTCH)

8

nhibits rate-limit in enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis (HMG-CoA reductase), Increased hepatic cholesterol uptake, Increased high affinity LDL receptors which leads to decreased LDL levels

Simvastatin, Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin, Fluvastatin, Pravastatin, Lovastatin, Pitavastatin, Cerivastatin (TOPNOTCH)

9

DOC for hypercholesterolemia(high LDL), decrease risk of acute coronary syndromes, ischemic stroke

Simvastatin, Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin, Fluvastatin, Pravastatin, Lovastatin, Pitavastatin, Cerivastatin (TOPNOTCH)

10

Prominent SE of statins: ____

Hepatoxicity, Myopathy, Rhabdomyolysis (TOPNOTCH)

11

Increased risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis when statins are used with

Fibrates (TOPNOTCH)

12

non-absorbable polyemers that bind bile acids and similar steroids in the intestines preventing their reabsorption, increases cholesterol utilization for replacement, modestly lowers LDL levels by increasing hepatic LDL receptors

Bile Acid Binding Resin (TOPNOTCH)

13

Bile Acid Binding Resin

Colesevelam, Colestipol, Cholestyramine (TOPNOTCH)

14

SE: Constipation, Bloating, Gritty taste, Gallstone formation, steatorrhea, malabsortion of fat soluble substances (vitamin k, folate)

Colesevelam, Colestipol, Cholestyramine (TOPNOTCH)

15

Selective inhibitor of the NCP1L1 transporter decreasing intestinal absorption of cholesterol and other phytosterols, decreases cholesterol hepatic pool, increases hepatic LDL receptors

NPC1L1 transporter inhibitor (TOPNOTCH)

16

NPC1L1 transporter inhibitor

Ezetimibe (TOPNOTCH)

17

Cholesterol analog, takes the place of dietary and billiary cholesterol, decreasing intestinal absorption of cholesterol and other phytosterols

Sitosterol (TOPNOTCH)

18

Decreases VLDL synthesis and LDL cholesterol concentrations, decreases hormone-sensitive lipase activity leading to decreased LDL levels, Increases HDL cholesterol by decreasing its catabolism

Niacin (TOPNOTCH)

19

DOC for increasing HDL levels

Niacin (TOPNOTCH)

20

SE: Flushing, nausea, vomiting, Pruritus, Acanthosis nigricans, Rashes, Gastrointestinal irritation, Hepatoxicity (mild), Hyperuricemia, Impaired glucose tolerance, Arrythmias, Amyblopia

Niacin (TOPNOTCH)

21

Activates PPAR-_ and increases expression of lipoprotein lipase and apolipoproteins (apoA-I, apoA-II) leading to enhanced clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins, Lowers triglycerides, Increases HDL

Fibrates (TOPNOTCH)

22

DOC for hypertriglyceridemia

Fibrates (TOPNOTCH)

23

Fibrates

Gemfibrozil, Fenofibrate, Bezafibrate (TOPNOTCH)

24

Fibrates have higher risk of gallstone formation if given together with ____

resins (TOPNOTCH)

25

Nonselective, irreversible COX 1&2 inhibitor. Reduces platelet production of thromboxane A2, temporarily inhibit Prostacyclin synthesis

Aspirin (TOPNOTCH)

26

Uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, associated with Reye syndrome in children

Aspirin (TOPNOTCH)

27

Reversbily inhibits the binding of fibrin and other ligands to the platelet GPIIb-IIIa receptor

GPIIb-IIIa inhibitor: Abciximab, Eptifibatide,Tirofiban (TOPNOTCH)

28

For prevention or arterial thrombosis (MI, TIA, CVD), Inflammatory disorders (rheumatic fever, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, kawasaki disease)

Aspirin (TOPNOTCH)

29

Inhibits phosphodiesterase III and increases cAMP in platelets and blood vessels, Inhibits platelet aggregation and causes vasolidation

PDE III inhibitor: Dipyridamole, Cilostazol (TOPNOTCH)

30

additional MOA: inhibit uptake of adenosine by endothelial cells and RBC, thus increasing adenosine levels leading to inhibition of platelet aggregation

PDE III inhibitor: Dipyridamole, Cilostazol (TOPNOTCH)

31

Irreversibly inhibits binding of ADP to platelet receptors,thus reducing platelet aggregation

ADP inhibitor: Clopidogrel,Ticlopidine, Prasugel (TOPNOTCH)

32

Activates antithrombin III which Inactivates thrombin or factor IIa, factor IXa & factor Xa by forming stable complexes with them

Heparin (TOPNOTCH)

33

SE: Bleeding, transient Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, Osteoporosis with chronic use

Heparin (TOPNOTCH)

34

DOC for anticoagulation during pregnancy ; administered IV or SC ; Monitor with aPTT,

Heparin (TOPNOTCH)

35

Antidote for heparin toxicity

Protamine Sulfate (TOPNOTCH)

36

Binds and potentiates effect of antithrombin III on factor Xa (more selective for Xa)

LMWH (TOPNOTCH)

37

LMWH

Enoxaparin, Dalteparin, Tinzaparin, Danaparoid, Fondaparinux (TOPNOTCH)

38

Does not require aPTT monitoring, Protamine sulfate is only partially effective in reversing effects

LMWH: Enoxaparin, Dalteparin, Tinzaparin, Danaparoid, Fondaparinux (TOPNOTCH)

39

Binds to thrombin's ative site and inhibits its enzymatic action

Direct Thrombin Inhibitors: Lepirudin, Desirudin, Bivalirudin, Argatroban, Dabigatran (TOPNOTCH)

40

bind to free and bound factor Xa

Direct Oral Factor Xa inhibitor: Rivaroxaban, Apixaban (TOPNOTCH)

41

Inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase (responsible for y-carboxylation of the vitamin K- dependent clotting (factors II, VII, IX, X, Protein C & Protein S)

Warfarin (TOPNOTCH)

42

For chronic anticoagulation (DVT, atrial fibrillation, valve replacement)

Warfarin (TOPNOTCH)

43

SE: Bleeding, Teratogen (bone defects, hemorrhage), warfarin-induced skin necrosis (transient hypercoagulability)

Warfarin (TOPNOTCH)

44

Monitor effects with PT-INR

Warfarin (TOPNOTCH)

45

Antidote forwarfarin toxicity

Vitamin K or FFP (TOPNOTCH)

46

Chemical antagonist of heparin. Reverses excessive anticlotting activity of unfractionated heparin

Protamine Sulfate (TOPNOTCH)

47

Tissue plasminogen activator analog. Converts plasminogen to plasmin, which degrades the fibrin and fibrinogen, causing thrombolysis

Alteplase, Anistreplase, Reteplase, Streptokinase, Tenecteplase, Urokinase (TOPNOTCH)

48

Tx should be done within 6 hrs, better if within 3hrs ; Antidote is AMINOCAPROIC ACID

Alteplase, Anistreplase, Reteplase, Streptokinase, Tenecteplase, Urokinase (TOPNOTCH)

49

Competitively inhibits plasminogen activation thus inhibiting fibrinolysis

Tranexamic acid (TOPNOTCH)

50

For Vitamin K deficiency, Antidote to warfarin, prevention of hemorrhagic diatheses in newborns

Vitamin K1, K2 (Phytonadione, Menaquinone) (TOPNOTCH)

51

Vasopressin V2 receptor agonist, Increases factor VIII activity of patients with mild hemophilia A or VWD

Desmopressin (TOPNOTCH)

52

low doses undergo first order kinetics while high doses undergo zero order reaction ; Long term use reduces the risk of colon cancer

Aspirin (TOPNOTCH)

53

COX-2 > COX-1 inhibition

Meloxicam & Piroxicam (TOPNOTCH)

54

NSAIDs that can be used to close PDA

Ibuprofen and Indomethacin (TOPNOTCH)

55

has significant analgesic effect but not anti-inflammatory effect

Ketorolac (TOPNOTCH)

56

SE: Gastrointestinal toxicity, pancreatitis, Nephrotoxicity, Serious hematologic reactions, BM suppression

Indomethacin (TOPNOTCH)

57

Selective COX-2 inhibitor

Celecoxib, Etoricoxib, Parecoxib (TOPNOTCH)

58

Rofecoxib and Valdecoxib withdrawn due to

increased incidence of thrombosis (TOPNOTCH)

59

Selectively inhibits COX-3 in the CNS, Weak COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor in the periphery, Inhibits prostaglandin synthesis

Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) (TOPNOTCH)

60

Inhibits AICAR transformylase and thymidylate snythetase, with secondary effects on polymorphonuclear chemotaxis

Methotrexate (TOPNOTCH)

61

DMARD of choice for Rheumatoid arthritis

Methotrexate (TOPNOTCH)

62

Rescue agent for Methotrexate toxicity

Leucovorin (Folinic acid) (TOPNOTCH)

63

Binds to TNF-a inhibitor

Infliximab, Adalimumab, Etanercept (TOPNOTCH)

64

SE: Bacterial infections (URTIs), reactivation of latent tuberculosis, lymphoma, Demyelination, Reactivation of Hepatitis B, Auto antibody formation (ANA, anti dsDNA), infusion reactions, hepatoxicity, hematotoxicity, cardiotoxicity

TNF-a inhibitor: Infliximab, Adalimumab, Etanercept (TOPNOTCH)

65

Antidote for paracetamol toxicity

N-acetyl cysteine (TOPNOTCH)

66

Forms 6-thioguanine, suppressing inosinic acid synthesis, B-cell and T-cell function, Immunoglobulin production and interleukin-2 secretion

Azathioprine (TOPNOTCH)

67

Cannot give _______ with azathioprine (the drug reduces xanthine oxide catabolism of purine analogs, increasing 6-thioguanine nucleotides, leading to serve leukopenia)

Allopurinol (TOPNOTCH)

68

Suppression of T-lymphocyte leading to decreased leukocyte chemotaxis, stabilization of lysosomal enzymes, inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis, trapping of free radicals

Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine (TOPNOTCH)

69

T or F: Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine are safe for pregnant patients

TRUE (TOPNOTCH)

70

Forms phospharamide mustard, which cross links DNA to prevent cell replication, Supresses T-cell and B-cell function

Cyclophosphamide (TOPNOTCH)

71

SE: hemorrhagic cystitis

Cyclophosphamide (TOPNOTCH)

72

Rescue agent for Cyclophosphamide toxicity

MESNA (TOPNOTCH)

73

Inhibits interleukin-1 and iterleukin-2 receptor production and secondarily inhibts macrophage-T-cell interaction and T-cell responsiveness

Cyclosporine (TOPNOTCH)

74

anti-IBD drug, active metabolite inhibits the release of inflammatory bowel cytokines

Sulfasalazine (TOPNOTCH)

75

Inhibits microtubule assembly and LTB4 production leading to decreased macrophage migration and phagocytosis

Microtubule assembly inhibtor: Colchicine (TOPNOTCH)

76

adverse effect which signals toxicity from colchicine

diarrhea (TOPNOTCH)

77

are weak acids that compete with uric acid for reabsorption in the PCT leading to increased uric acid excretion

Uricosuric agent: Probenecid, Sulfinpyrazone (TOPNOTCH)

78

may be given together with antimicrobial agents (particularly Pens) to prolong therapeutic effect by inhibiting renal tubular secretion of antibiotics

Probenecid (TOPNOTCH)

79

Active metabolite (alloxanthine) irreversibly inhibits xanthine oxidase and lowers production of uric acid

Xanthine oxidase inhibitor: Allopurinol, Febuxostat (TOPNOTCH)

80

1st line treatment of chronic gout, tumor lysis syndrome

Xanthine oxidase inhibitor: Allopurinol, Febuxostat (TOPNOTCH)

81

T or F: Allopurinol is more effective than Febuxostat

FALSE (TOPNOTCH)