Vaccinations Flashcards Preview

MSS-IHL Final Exam > Vaccinations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vaccinations Deck (25):
1

purpose of vaccines

provide an individual with the PRIMARY immune response to pathogen

2

factors allowing vaccines to be effective?

-doesn't cause latency
-doesn't have much antigenic variation
-doesn't interfere with host immune response

vaccines also most effective against infections that are limited to human hosts

3


herd immunity

sufficient number of immune individuals in a population

-to stop transmission of infection

**proportion depends on severity of infection

4

passive immunization

uses pre-synthesized antibodies
-prevent disease after known exposure
-protect immunosuppressed patients

-ex/ snake bite venom
also, passive transfer of mom Abs to child

5

active immunization

delayed but more permanent
ex/ natural exposure to pathogens and vaccines

6

combined passive-active immunization

give immediate and lasting protection

ex/ tetanus, rabies

**must be given in different sites of body

7

how to make vaccine?

whole or part of microorganisms administered to prevent infectious disease

isolate something that:
-does not cause disease
-does cause immune response

8

types of vaccines?

acellular, killed organisms, attenuated, toxoid, mimic, subunit, DNA plasmid

9

killed organism vaccine?

inactivated or killed microorganism

ex/ polio

10

acelllular vaccine?

use antigen part of disease causing organism

ex/ DTap

11

attenuated vaccine?

can be attenuated by environmental conditions or genetic engineering

reduce virulence but still keep it viable

12

toxoid vaccine?

made from inactivated toxic compounds that cause illness rather than the micro-organism

ex/ tetanus

13

mimic vaccine?

use organisms similar to virulent one but doesn't cause harm

ex/ vaccinia

14

subunit vaccine?

utilizes techniques of genetic engineering

requires adjuvant

uses subunit of virulent organism

15

DNA plasmid vaccine?

mimics live attenuated vaccine preparation
-circular DNA plasmids expressing specific proteins injected with presentation of protein to immune system

ex/ HIV in development
vaccinia vector

16

thimersol

used as preservative in vaccines

can be converted to methyl-mercury (neurotoxin)

no longer used

17

adjuvants

bring antigen into contact with immune system

18

aluminum hydroxide

only FDA approved adjuvant

clumps with antigen to keep it at the injection site

19

immunization schedule for child

produce immunity to virulent organisms likely to be encountered early in life

consider:
-timing of likely exposure
-immunological maturity of child
-passively transferred antibodies
-boosters for priming

20

parenteral route?

subQ, IM, or intradermal

stimulates IgG

21

oral route?

stimulates IgA

22

contraindications to immunization?

febrile illness
immunosuppressive therapy
recent blood transfusion
simultaneous vaccination of another vaccine
immunodeficiency
pregnancy
leukaemia or lymphoma

23

vaccines for special populations?

influenza - children and elderly
hep A, typhoid, west nile, yellow fever - travelers
rabies - animal workers

24

adverse reaction to vaccines?

not totally safe
-no perfect vaccine

undesirable side effects

25

new vaccine strategy?

use recombinant DNA technology