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Flashcards in Vaccine and Molecular Diagnostic Tecniques Deck (33):
1

What is a vaccine?

Suspension of antigens that is administered to induce immunity.

2

True/False. The majority of vaccines derives from microbial pathogens for controlling infectious diseases.

True.

3

What can vaccines contain?

-Preservatives and stabilizers to preserve the antigen
-Specific antibiotics to inhibit bacterial and fungal growth
-Adjuvant to enhance the immune response to the antigen

4

What delays the release of antigens from the site of injection and induces the secretion of chemokines by leukocytes?

Adjuvant

5

True/False. Depot adjuvants and particulate adjuvats enhace cell-mediated immunity and antibody production.

False. Particulate adjuvant enhances cell-mediated immunity and Immunostimulated adjuvants enhance antibody production

6

What are depot adjuvants?

They prolong immune responses

7

What are the cons of live attenuated vaccines?

-Potential for reversion to virulence
-Virulence in the immunocompromised
-Less stable in storage

8

A ____ vaccine permits discrimination between a vaccinal and an exposure immune response.

Marker vaccine

9

What are the pros of live attenuated vaccines?

-Rapid onset of immunity
-May immunize others in populations
-Sustained immunity

10

What are subunit vaccines?

Contain immunological structural proteins or metabolites of an organism

11

What do subunit vaccines consist of?

Purified proteins
Synthetic peptides
Recombinant proteins

12

Ture/False. In naked DNA vaccines a gene of interest from a pathogen is cloned to a plasmid and delivered directly into the animal.

True.

13

The plasmids transfect host including APC's and the pathogen gene is expressed and processed in APC for antigen presentation.

Naked DNA vaccines

14

What is passive immunization?

Performed antibodies are administered to a particular antigen for immediate, temporary immunological protection

15

____ sensitize a recipient for a hypersensitive reaction by inhibiting the endogenous antibody response.

Passive immunization

16

______ produces a humoral/cell-mediated response and has immunological memory.

Active Immunization

17

What are the protection levels of active immunization?

-Strong protective imunity
-Infected, but clinically well - no infection
-Infected with much reduced and mild form of disease
-Failure- no protection

18

Which of the following are methods of vaccine delivery?

a. Injection vaccination
b. Intranasal vaccination
c. Needle- free vaccination
d. All the above

d. All the above

19

What is Type 1 hypersensitivity?

Immediated by IgG, Facial or periorbital edema, puritis

20

What is passive immunization?

a. Antibody administered
b. Immediate protection
c. Long-term protection
d. All the above
E. Both A and B

E. Both A and B

21

True/False. Adverse side-effects, no matter minor or severe, may occur during vaccination. FISS (Feline Injection Site Sarcoma) is an example.

True.

22

What is/are the characteristics of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)?

a. Action of restriction enzyme is specific
b. Action of restriction enzyme is nonspecific
c. RFLP is used in parenthood identification
d. A and C are correct
e. B and C are correct

d. A and C are correct

23

True/False. Specificity of a PCR reaction is mainly determined by primers.

True.

24

True/False. Western Blot detect nucleic acids.

False

25

True/False. The smaller the faster in regards to the size of molecules for electrophoresis.

True.

26

State the order from greatest to least mobility of the structure of molecules in electrophoresis.

Supercoiled > linear > nicked (DNA); monomer > dimer >trimer >polymer (proteins)

27

Denatured, single stranded DNA, used for genetic material of nucleic acid and is usually small

Hybridization

28

What are the characteristics of a probe?

-fragment of nucleic acids
-labeled,radioisotope, enzyme, or chiluminescence
-detecting complementary sequences in the samples
-high degree of specificity
-various in size, <50 bp

29

What is target amplification?

enzyme-mediated process to synthesize copies of targeted nucleic acid

30

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Isothermal amplification

High sensitivity
False positive

31

Which of the following about PCR primers is true?

a. Single-stranded DNA fragments, complementary to sequences flanking the region to be amplified
b. Distance between the primer binding sites determines the size of PCR product
c. Determines specificity
d. All the above are true

d. All the above are true

32

Which of the following use a probe or dye to generate a fluorescent signal from the product and shows a curve with a lag phase, log phase and stationary phase?

a. Reverse transcriptase PCR
b. Quantitative or real time PCR
c. Multiplex PCR
d. Nested PCR

b. Quantitative or real time PCR

33

True/False. Lag phase is inversely proportional to the log phase.

False. Lag phase is inversely proportional to the amount of starting material