Valvular Disorders Flashcards Preview

ClinMed Exam 4 CARDS 1 > Valvular Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Valvular Disorders Deck (24)
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1

Most common valvular disease in the US and second most frequent cause for cardiac surgery

Aortic Stenosis

2

Narrows valve opening, impeding ejection function of the left side of the heart

Aortic Stenosis

3

Results in volume overloading due to retrograde blood flow into the left ventricle

Aortic insufficiency / regurgitation

4

Impedes blood flow between left atrium and ventricle

Mitral stenosis

5

Allows retrograde blood flow and volume overload of left atrium

Mitral insufficiency / regurgitation
Mitral valve prolapse

6

What does valve-related progressive heart failure lead to?

Pulmonary HTN and congestion

7

Most frequent causes of mitral and aortic valve disorders

Congenital defects

8

Other causes of mitral and aortic valve disorders

Rheumatic heart disease
Connective tissue disorders
Infection
Senile degeneration

9

Most common presenting symptoms of mitral and aortic valve disorder

Dyspnea, fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance

10

Additional symptoms of mitral and aortic valve disorders

Cough, rales, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, hemoptysis, hoarseness

11

How would aortic stenosis affect carotid pulse?

Thready (not enough volume being ejected)

12

How would aortic insufficiency affect carotid pulse?

Bounding pulses, widened pulse pressures (fluid overload)

13

Most patients with this disorder are thin females with minor chest wall deformities, mid systolic clicks, and late systolic murmur

Mitral Valve Prolapse

14

Murmur location and quality of Aortic Stenosis

2nd RICS

Loud, harsh, midsystolic

15

Murmur location and quality of Aortic Regurgitation

2nd-4th LICS

High-pitch blowing, Systolic (soft) and diastolic decrescendo

16

Murmur location and quality of Mitral Stenosis

Apex (4th-5th LICS) - patient in Left Lateral Position

Low pitch, Middiastolic

17

Murmur location and quality of Mitral Regurgitation

Apex (4-5th LICS)

Med-High pitch blowing, Pansystolic

18

Treatment for Mitral / Aortic Valve disorders

Surgical repair / replacement only longterm treatment

19

Medical treatment options for mitral / aortic valve disorders

1. Diuretics / vasodilators for pulmonary congestion

2. Digoxin / beta blockers for dysrhythmias

3. Anticoagulant therapy to prevent thromboemboli

4. Antibiotics to prevent endocarditis (esp for Regurge)

20

Patients with congenital anomalies of these valves usually present during infancy or childhood; adults may present with stenosis resulting from rheumatic scarring or connective tissue disease

Tricuspid / Pulmonic Valve disorders

21

Tricuspid regurgitation murmur location / quality

LLSB

Blowing, Pansystolic / Holosystolic

*JVP often elevated*

22

Pulmonic stenosis murmur location / quality

2nd-3rd LICS

Harsh, Midsystolic crescendo-decrescendo

23

Clinical features of pulmonic / tricuspid valve disorders

Patients usually present with exercise intolerance

Right Heart fluid overload: Jugular venous distention, peripheral edema, hepatomegaly

24

Only definitive means of identifying structural / functional abnormalities in valvular disorders

*Transesophageal Echocardiography*

Cardiac catheterization as well
Doppler ultrasound for pressure gradient assessment