Valvular Heart Disease Flashcards Preview

Jamie Cardiovascular Pathology > Valvular Heart Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Valvular Heart Disease Deck (30):
1

What are the 4 main valvular lesions?

Aortic stenosis
Aortic regurgitation
Mitral stenosis
Mitral regurgitation

2

Which 2 valves open during systole?

Aortic and Pulmonary

3

Which 2 valves open during diastole?

Mitral and Tricuspid

4

Which valvular lesions can be heard during systole?

Aortic stenosis
Mitral regurgitation

5

Which valvular lesions can be heard during diastole?

Aortic regurgitation
Mitral stenosis

6

What are the 2 main causes of aortic stenosis?

Rheumatic heart disease
Congenital mitral stenosis

7

What are 4 clinical manifestations of mitral stenosis?

Dyspnoea
Haemoptysis
Chest Pain
Hoarseness
Systemic embolisation
Infective Endocarditis

8

What are 3 signs of aortic stenosis you could find on examination?

Mitral facies
JVP (prominent a-wave)
Apex beat - tapping and diastolic thrill
RV heave
Diastolic murmur between S2 and S1

9

What 2 non-imaging investigations would be done to identify valve lesions?

ECG
Cardiac catherisation

10

What 3 imaging investigations would be done to identify valve lesions?

CXR
ECHO cardiogram
Cardiac MRI

11

What 2 types of drug are used to treat mitral stenosis?

Diuretics
Anti-coagulation drugs (especially AF related ones)

12

What 2 surgical interventions can be performed on mitral stenosis?

Valvotomy (balloon or surgical)
Mitral valve replacement

13

What are 3 causes of mitral regurgitation

Rheumatic Heart Disease
Mitral valve prolapse
Infective endocarditis

14

What are the 3 clinical manifestations of acute mitral regurgitation?

Breathlessness
Pulmonary oedema
Cardiogenic shock

15

What are the 3 clinical manifestations of chronic mitral regurgitation? (and the 2 further manifestations due to AF)

Fatigue
Exhaustion
Right heart failure

(Dyspnoea or palpitations)

16

What are 5 observations you would make upon examination of a patient with mitral regurgitation?

Pulse - reduced in heart failure
JVP - prominent in RH failure
Apex beat - brisk and hyper-dynamic
RV heave
Systolic murmur - between S1 and S2

17

What 2 drugs should been given to treat acute mitral regurgitation?

Dobutamine
IABP

18

What 2 surgical interventions can be performed on mitral regurgitation?

Mitral valve apparatus repair
Mitral valve replacement

19

What are the 2 causes of aortic stenosis?

Rheumatic - commissures fuse
Atherosclerosis of the cusps

20

What is symptomatically significant about aortic stenosis?

It has a low asymptomatic phase

21

What are 4 cardinal symptoms of aortic stenosis?

Chest pain
Syncope
Breathlessness on exertion
Heart failure

22

What are 5 observations you would make upon examination of a patient with aortic stenosis?

Pulse - small volume and slow rising
JVP - prominent in RH failure
Apex beat - vigorous and sustained
RV heave
Systolic murmur

23

What treatment do you give to a patient with aortic stenosis?

No treatment unless they develop heart failure

24

What 2 surgical interventions can be performed on aortic stenosis?

Aortic valve apparatus repair
Aortic valve replacement

25

What 4 conditions can cause aortic regurgitation?

Marfans syndrome - dilated aorta
Hypertension - dilated Aorta
Connective tissue disorders
Bicuspid aortic valve
Rheumatic heart disease
Endocarditis

26

What is symptomatically significant about aortic regurgitation?

Long asymptomatic phase

27

What is a clinical manifestation of chronic aortic regurgitation?

Breathlessness on exertion

28

What are 4 observations you would make upon examination of a patient with aortic regurgitation?

Pulse - large volume and collapsing
Wide pulse pressure
Apex beat - displaced and hyper-dynamic
Diastolic murmur

29

What treatment can be given to delay timing for surgical intervention of aortic regurgitation?

Vasodilator therapy

30

What 2 surgical interventions can be performed on aortic regurgitation?

Aortic valve apparatus repair
Aortic valve replacement