Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents Flashcards Preview

CPS Statements > Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents Deck (34):
1

What percentage of 6-17yo in US are vegetarians?

2%

2

What percentage of 6-17yo are strict vegans?

0.5%

3

What is a lacto-ovo-vegetarian?

No meat, fish, fowl or products containing these foods, but include dairy and eggs.

4

What is a vegan?

Excludes all meat, fish, dairy and eggs – no animal products at all.

5

What is a macrobiotic diet?

Not necessarily vegetarian, but based largely on grains, legumes and vegetables. Many also include some animal products.

6

What is a rastafarian and fruitarian?

Extremely restrictive vegan diet

7

Do vegetarian children obtain adequate energy intake and growth?

Yes

8

Do vegan children obtain adequate energy intake and growth?

Can be a challenge, insufficient data to comment

9

What products can increase calorie density and support growth?

Soy products
Nuts
Nut butters

10

Do vegetarian children obtain adequate protein and essential amino acids?

No, require 10-15% increased recommended protein intake compared to non-vegetarians

11

What are the main plant sources of protein?

Legumes (beans and lentils)
Cereals
Nuts and seeds
Nut and seed butters
Soy

12

Do vegetarian children obtain adequate iron intake?

No, require 1.8 times iron intake due to poor bioavailability

13

What are the main vegetarian sources of iron?

Iron fortified cereals
Grain products
Dried beans and peas
Iron supplementation

14

Do vegetarian children obtain adequate zinc?

No, require 50% greater intake of zinc, but typicaly do not become truly deficient

15

What are the main vegetarian sources of zinc?

Legumes
Nuts
Yeast leavened breads
Fermented soy products

16

Do vegetarian children obtain adequate calcium?

Yes

17

Do vegan children obtain adequate calcium?

No, may require supplementation

18

What are the main vegan sources of calcium?

Fortified soy products, cereals, and juices
Leafy green vegetables, esp. bok choy, Chinese cabbage, kale, collardss

19

Do vegetarian children obtain adequate fat and fatty acids?

Yes

20

Do vegan children obtain adequate fat and fatty acids?

No, require additonal intake of precursor linolenic acid (as do not consume EPA or DHA)

21

What are the recommendations re: omega-3 fatty acids and vegetarians?

1% of total caloric intake (5mL flaxseed oil, 45mL walnuts, 15mL canola oil)

22

What are the recommendations re: vegans and DHA and EPA?

Eat food sources high in linolenic acid:
Flaxseed oil
Canola oil
Walnut products
Soy products

Preterm infants require supplementation with DHA as cannot convert precursors

23

Do vegetarian children obtain adequate vitamin B12

Yes as its in dairy and eggs

24

Do vegan children obtain adequate vitamin B12?

No, require supplementation (vitamin B12 5-10ug/day) or minimum of 3 servings of vitamin B12 rich foods daily including in breastfeeding infants of strict vegan mothers

25

What are vegan sources of B12?

Appropriate: Fortified soy Other: formula and cereals
Yeasts, fortified soy and nut beverages, cereals

26

What is the recommendations regarding supplementation for vitamin D?

Breastfed infants <1yo 400IU daily
Formula fed infants: obtain 400IU from formula
Children 1yo to teen: 200IU daily from all sources

Give 800IU PO daily from Oct to April in <2yo if:
1. >latitude 55
2. Dark skin
3. Avoiding sunlight

27

Do vegetarian children obtain adequate vitamin D?

Yes, in fatty ocean fish, egg yolks, and fortified milk

28

Do vegan children obtain adequate vitamin D?

No, require supplementation with ergocalciferol vitamin D2 (nonanimal product)

29

Do vegetarians and vegans obtain adequate riboflavin?

Riboflavin should be normal

30

Do vegans obtain adequate vitamin A?

No, need to intake beta-carotenes (three servings per day of yellow, orange, or leafy green vegetables or beta-carotene rich fruits) and convert to vitamin A

31

Do vegans obtain adequate fibre?

May be too high an limit intake of adequate calories and interfere absorption of minerals

32

What are the nutritional concerns for vegan pregnant and vegan mothers?

Supplement with:
1. Vitamin B12
2. Vitamin D 2000U during winter months
3. Folic acid
4. DHA or eat linolenic acid containing foods
5. Calcium content in breastmilk unaffected but mother may require Calcium supplementation
6. Zinc (inadequate zinc in breast milk >7mo)
7. Iron

33

What are vegan or vegetarian adolescents often nutritionally deficient in?

1. Vitamin B12
2. Calcium
3. Vitamin D
4. Iron

34

What are the recommendations regarding vegetarian diets in athletes?

Can meet all the needs but will require good supervision to ensure adequate protein, calcium iron, energy intake

Decks in CPS Statements Class (223):