Flashcards in Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents Deck (34):
What percentage of 6-17yo in US are vegetarians?
What percentage of 6-17yo are strict vegans?
What is a lacto-ovo-vegetarian?
No meat, fish, fowl or products containing these foods, but include dairy and eggs.
What is a vegan?
Excludes all meat, fish, dairy and eggs – no animal products at all.
What is a macrobiotic diet?
Not necessarily vegetarian, but based largely on grains, legumes and vegetables. Many also include some animal products.
What is a rastafarian and fruitarian?
Extremely restrictive vegan diet
Do vegetarian children obtain adequate energy intake and growth?
Do vegan children obtain adequate energy intake and growth?
Can be a challenge, insufficient data to comment
What products can increase calorie density and support growth?
Do vegetarian children obtain adequate protein and essential amino acids?
No, require 10-15% increased recommended protein intake compared to non-vegetarians
What are the main plant sources of protein?
Legumes (beans and lentils)
Nuts and seeds
Nut and seed butters
Do vegetarian children obtain adequate iron intake?
No, require 1.8 times iron intake due to poor bioavailability
What are the main vegetarian sources of iron?
Iron fortified cereals
Dried beans and peas
Do vegetarian children obtain adequate zinc?
No, require 50% greater intake of zinc, but typicaly do not become truly deficient
What are the main vegetarian sources of zinc?
Yeast leavened breads
Fermented soy products
Do vegetarian children obtain adequate calcium?
Do vegan children obtain adequate calcium?
No, may require supplementation
What are the main vegan sources of calcium?
Fortified soy products, cereals, and juices
Leafy green vegetables, esp. bok choy, Chinese cabbage, kale, collardss
Do vegetarian children obtain adequate fat and fatty acids?
Do vegan children obtain adequate fat and fatty acids?
No, require additonal intake of precursor linolenic acid (as do not consume EPA or DHA)
What are the recommendations re: omega-3 fatty acids and vegetarians?
1% of total caloric intake (5mL flaxseed oil, 45mL walnuts, 15mL canola oil)
What are the recommendations re: vegans and DHA and EPA?
Eat food sources high in linolenic acid:
Preterm infants require supplementation with DHA as cannot convert precursors
Do vegetarian children obtain adequate vitamin B12
Yes as its in dairy and eggs
Do vegan children obtain adequate vitamin B12?
No, require supplementation (vitamin B12 5-10ug/day) or minimum of 3 servings of vitamin B12 rich foods daily including in breastfeeding infants of strict vegan mothers
What are vegan sources of B12?
Appropriate: Fortified soy Other: formula and cereals
Yeasts, fortified soy and nut beverages, cereals
What is the recommendations regarding supplementation for vitamin D?
Breastfed infants <1yo 400IU daily
Formula fed infants: obtain 400IU from formula
Children 1yo to teen: 200IU daily from all sources
Give 800IU PO daily from Oct to April in <2yo if:
1. >latitude 55
2. Dark skin
3. Avoiding sunlight
Do vegetarian children obtain adequate vitamin D?
Yes, in fatty ocean fish, egg yolks, and fortified milk
Do vegan children obtain adequate vitamin D?
No, require supplementation with ergocalciferol vitamin D2 (nonanimal product)
Do vegetarians and vegans obtain adequate riboflavin?
Riboflavin should be normal
Do vegans obtain adequate vitamin A?
No, need to intake beta-carotenes (three servings per day of yellow, orange, or leafy green vegetables or beta-carotene rich fruits) and convert to vitamin A
Do vegans obtain adequate fibre?
May be too high an limit intake of adequate calories and interfere absorption of minerals
What are the nutritional concerns for vegan pregnant and vegan mothers?
1. Vitamin B12
2. Vitamin D 2000U during winter months
3. Folic acid
4. DHA or eat linolenic acid containing foods
5. Calcium content in breastmilk unaffected but mother may require Calcium supplementation
6. Zinc (inadequate zinc in breast milk >7mo)
What are vegan or vegetarian adolescents often nutritionally deficient in?
1. Vitamin B12
3. Vitamin D