Flashcards in VERBS Deck (46)
Name the 3 groups of verb tenses and the four sub divisions.
Tenses = Present, Past, Future
Modifiers = Simple, Progressive (Continuous), Perfect, Perfect Progressive.
For what is Simple Present used? Give an example.
It is used to show something that does/not happen regularly. It shows habit.
e.g. Simon plays tennis everyday.
For what is Simple Past used? Give an example.
Is shows something that happened in the past, and finished in the past, at a particular time.
e.g. Simon played tennis yesterday.
For what is Simple Future used? Give an example.
It is used to show an event that will occur in the future.
e.g. Simon will play tennis tomorrow.
For what is a Progressive (Continuous) tense used and how is it formed?
It is used to show that an action is continuing at a certain period of time. Need conjunction of 'to be' and an -'ing'. verb.
For what is Present Progressive used? Give an example.
An action that is occuring right now.
e.g. Prue is walking to class.
For what is Past Progressive used? Give an example.
An action that was continuing at a certain time in the past.
e.g. Prue was walking to class.
For what is Future Progressive used? Give an example.
To show that an action will be occuring continuously in the future
e.g. Prue will be walking to class.
For what is a Perfect tense used and how is it formed?
It is used to show that an action will have been completed. It is formed using conjugation of 'to have' and past participle.
For what is Present Perfect used (2) Give an example.
It is used to show that something hapened in the past, before now, at a non-specific time, or something that happened regularly in the past but at non-specific times..
e.g. Peter has eaten sushi before.
For what is Past Perfect used? Give an example.
Past perfect has nothing to do with the present. It refers to two actions in the past and one occured before the other.
e.g. Peter had studied before the test.
For what is Future Perfect used? Give an example.
It is used to refer to two actions occuring in the future, 'now' is not important.
e.g. By next weekend Peter will have seen the film 5 times.
For what is a Perfect Progressive tense used and how is it formed?
The perfect progressive tense describes actions that repeated over a period of time in the past, are continuing in the present, and/or will continue in the future. Formed by using conjugating 'have' + been + ing.
For what is Present Perfect Progressive used? Give an example.
It is used to show that something started before now, and has continued, and may continue for even longer.
e.g. Pepe has been waiting a long time.
For what is Past Perfect Progressive used? Give an example.
It shows that something was happening in the past and may have been going on before something else. The length of time is important of the continuous action.
e.g. Pepe had been sleeping 10 hours.
For what is Future Perfect Progressive used? Give an example.
Is shows a continuous action in the future, for a specified period of time.
e.g. Pepe will have been studying for a month.
What is the difference between using Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive? Give examples of key words.
Present Perfect incicates the number of times that something occurs, whereas Present Perfect Progressive indicates for how long the action occurs.
e.g. Present Perfect uses words like one time, one, twice, before. Present Perfect Progressive uses words like for one hour, day, week, all day, all week.
What is the difference between Present Perfect and Simple Past? Give examples of key words and an example sentence of each.
In Present Perfect 'now' is important whereas in Simple Past the action happened at a specific time.
Present perfect uses words like already, ever, never, yet, since, so far.
e.g. Peter has already finished his homework.
Simple Past uses words like last night, week, Monday, in 1979, 2 days ago, yesterday.
e.g. Simon saw that movie on Friday.
How can tenses be modified? (4) Give an example of each.
By changing the mood of the tense, which conveys the degree of reality.
1. Declarative (indicative/statement)- I like that cat
2. Imperative - (command) Be kind to that cat!
3. Interrogative - (question) Do you like that cat?
4. Subjunctive - If I were that cat I would thing myself lucky (things that might happen, could, should, or wish)
How does the Subjunctive affect the form of the Verb?
'am/was' changes to 'were'
'is/are' changes to 'be'
What does the Voice of a Verb refer to?
It is a property of a Verb which indicates whether the subject is acting, or is acted upon.
What are the two types of Voice of a Verb? Give an example of each.
Active = the subject of the sentence is the 'doer'
e.g. I WROTE a book
Passive = the subject is acted upon
e.g. The book was written
What is a tip for identifying if a verb is in the Passive voice and what sort of verbs can be used in the Passive voice?
You can write 'by goblins' after the verb and the sentence still makes sense.
Only transitive verbs can take the passive voice
How is the Passive voice of a verb formed?
It contains a conjugation of the verb 'to be' and the past participle of the verb being used
What are the 5 uses of the passive voice?
1. To soften the tone of a message e.g. It has been decided that....... (Impersonal Passive)
2. Action of verb is performed by agent unknown (Impersonal Passive)
3. To avoid taking responsibility for something (Exonerative Passive)
4. Scientific writing
5. General truth
What is the Expletive ? Give an example and a reworded example not using the Expletive.
It is not swearing. It is a construction beginning with ' it is' or ' there is/are".
e.g IT IS inevitable that grammarians will argue.
Better to reword as; Grammarians will inevitably argue
What is the Existential Expletive?
It is raining. It is how we talk about the weather!
What is the 3 functions of a Verb?
Verbs should express the central idea in a sentence.
1. They describe a state of being of the subject of the sentence - e.g. I AM a writer
2. They express an action - e.g. I WROTE a book
3. They describe an occurrence of the subject of the sentence - e.g. Something terrible HAPPENED
What are the two classes of Verb?
Finite and Non-Finite