Vertebral Canal and Scapular Dissection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebral Canal and Scapular Dissection Deck (21)
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1

What is the Vertebral canal?

Vertebral canal: encloses the spinal cord, spinal meninges (membranes), and blood vessels

2

Where does the spinal cord begin and end?

Spinal cord: begins at foramen magnum of occipital bone and ends at L2 (in adult)

3

Where is the cervical enlargement?

Cervical enlargement: C4 to T1

4

Where is the lumbar enlargement?

Lumbar enlargement: L2 to S3

5

How many spinal nerves are there and how are they named?

Spinal nerves: 31 pairs: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal;

spinal nerves are numbered according to the vertebra above them; spinal nerves pass under the vertebra (thoracic, lumbar, sacral only); cervical spinal nerves pass above vertebra; C8 has no vertebra

6

What is the Ligamenta flava?

• Ligamenta flava: connect the laminae of the adjacent vertebrae

7

What is the Posterior internal vertebral venous plexus?

• Posterior internal vertebral venous plexus—N 170
o These veins have no valves allowing blood to flow superiorly or inferiorly depending on blood pressure gradients
o Can be routes for metastasis of cancer from the pelvis to the vertebrae, vertebral canal, and cranial cavity

8

What are the meninges found around the spinal cord from superficial to deep?

Dura mater
Arachnoid space (contains CSF)
Arachnoid mater
Pia Mater

9

What are the regions at and after the end of the spinal cord?

o Conus medullaris (medullary cone): end of spinal cord between L1 and L2

o Cauda equina: (horse tail) collection of ventral and dorsal roots in the lower vertebral canal

o Filum terminale internum: filament continuous with the pia mater; arises from tip of conus medullaris and ends at

10

Where are epidurals given or CSF obtained from and why?

Lumbar puncture: used to obtain CSF from subarachnoid space; CSF is taken from space inferior to conus medullaris; at this level, there is no danger of penetrating the spinal cord with the needle

11

What is the Posterior internal vertebral venous plexus?

• Posterior internal vertebral venous plexus—N 170
o These veins have no valves allowing blood to flow superiorly or inferiorly depending on blood pressure gradients
o Can be routes for metastasis of cancer from the pelvis to the vertebrae, vertebral canal, and cranial cavity

12

What are the shoulder muscles?

6 shoulder muscles: deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, teres major, subscapularis

13

What are the parts of the scapula and find them.

• Scapula:
o Acromion
o Suprascapular notch
o Supraspinous fossa
o Spine
o Infraspinous fossa
o Supraglenoid tubercle
o Glenoid cavity
o Infraglenoid tubercle
o Coracoid process

14

What are the parts of the humerus and find them.

• Humerus
o Head
o Anatomical neck
o Greater tubercle
o Lesser tubercle
o Intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove)
o Surgical neck
o Deltoid tuberosity
o Radial groove

15

What is the function, innervation and blood supply for the deltoid muscle?

o Function: abducts humerus N424
o Innervation: Axillary nerve
o Artery: posterior circumflex humeral artery

16

What is the function, innervation and blood supply for the teres minor muscle?

o Function: rotates humerus
o Innervation: axillary nerve
o Artery: circumflex scapular artery; posterior circumflex humeral a.

17

What is the function, innervation and blood supply for • Teres major muscle?

o Function: adducts; medially rotates the humerus
o Innervation: lower subscapularis n.
o Artery: circumflex scapular a.

18

What is the function, innervation and blood supply for the supraspinatus muscle?

o Function: initiates abduction of humerus
o Innervation: suprascapular nerve
o Artery: suprascapular artery

19

What is the function, innervation and blood supply for the infraspinatus muscle?

o Function: laterally rotates humerus
o Innervation: suprascapular nerve (N 426)
o Artery: suprascapular artery

20

What are the borders of the quadrangular space?

o Superior border: teres minor m. (inferior border)
o Lateral border: humerus
o Medial border: long head of triceps brachii m.
o Inferior border: teres major m. (superior border)

21

What are the muscles of the rotator cuff?

(4 muscles)—“SITS”
o Supraspinatus
o Infraspinatus
o Teres minor
o Subscapularis