Flashcards in Vertebral column & Back Deck (36):
The primary role of the neck and cervical spine is to
support and move the head
In what ways do the vertebra differ from each other
Cervical -> smallest body
Thoracic -> ribs attached
Lumbar -> largest body
Sacrum -> fused -> stability
Cocygeal -> fused
The larger the vertebral body is the....?
More weight it has to bear
Define cauda equina
inferior nerve roots of spinal column - they continue even though the vertebra have stopped!
Abnormal spinal curvature where the back bends out posteriorly
Back is moved to the side - carrying bag on one side
Abnormal spinal curvature where back bends forward - pregnant lady
Number of each type of vertebra
Cervical - 7
Thoracic - 12
Lumber - 5
Sacral - 5 --> fused
Coccygeal --> 3-4 fused
Which two types of vertebrae are fused together?
Sacryl and coccygeal
Type of bone that the vertebrae are
What does a vertebra consist of
Spinous & Transverse processes
Function of vertebrae body
Articulates with the vertebrae above and below
Function of the vertebral arch
Protects spinal chord
What two movements does the spine do?
Lateral flexion, flexion and extension & axial rotation
Where does the spinal cord terminate in relation to the vertebral coloumn
L1 & L2
Three layers that cover the spinal cord
Define intervertebral foramen
Nerves pass through them
Blood vessels pass through them
Motor neurons are found where in the spinal cord?
Spinal cord ventral horn
Sensory neurons are found where in the spinal cord?
Dorsal root ganglia
Where do the motor and sensory neurons mix?
Rami -> larger ventral rami and smaller dorsal rami
Located between adjacent vertebrae. These fibrocartilage discs form strong joints and absorb spinal compression shock.
Secondary cartilagenous joint between two bodies
Describe Anulus Fibrosus
Concentric lamella rings that alternate found in intervertebral joints
Function of Anulus fibrosus
Keeps vertebrae together
Protects against compression
And allows movement in all direction -> so no tearing.
Describe the nucleus pulposus in intervertebral joints
Liquid found in the middle of the anulus fibrosus
Function of nucleus pulposus
Keeps vertebrae apart
What happens to the nucleus pulposus over time?
Dries out with ages --> become shorter as we grow older
Zygopophyseal Joints/Facet Joints
Plane Synovial joint between superior articular process of vertebrae below and inferior articular process of vertebra above
Articular process function
Allow movement in 1 plane
Articular processes movement differ due to
Shape and depth of the articular process
eg. Thoracic -> coronal plane --> rotate
Three types of ligaments found around the spinal coloumn
Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligs
Interspinous & Supraspinous ligs
Appears yellow --> high elastic composition
Stretch and return back to shape
In the actual vertebral coloumn and attaches to lamena
Ligament flava is NB for which movement
What is a primary curve
foetus and a new-born baby there is a single primary curve that is convex posteriorly
What are secondary curves
as the child achieves head control, adopts an upright posture and learns to walk
These are concave posteriorly
Where are primary curves and secondary curves found
Primary - thoracic spine and become fixed by fusion in the sacrum
Secondary - lumbar and cervical