Vertebral column & Back Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebral column & Back Deck (36):
1

The primary role of the neck and cervical spine is to

support and move the head

2

In what ways do the vertebra differ from each other

Cervical -> smallest body
Thoracic -> ribs attached
Lumbar -> largest body
Sacrum -> fused -> stability
Cocygeal -> fused

3

The larger the vertebral body is the....?

More weight it has to bear

4

Define cauda equina

inferior nerve roots of spinal column - they continue even though the vertebra have stopped!

5

Kyphosis

Abnormal spinal curvature where the back bends out posteriorly

6

Scoliosis

Back is moved to the side - carrying bag on one side

7

Abnormal lerdosis

Abnormal spinal curvature where back bends forward - pregnant lady

8

Number of each type of vertebra

Cervical - 7
Thoracic - 12
Lumber - 5
Sacral - 5 --> fused
Coccygeal --> 3-4 fused

9

Which two types of vertebrae are fused together?

Sacryl and coccygeal

10

Type of bone that the vertebrae are

Irregular bone

11

What does a vertebra consist of

Articular processes
Lamina
Canal
Pedicle
Spinous & Transverse processes
Body
Arch

12

Function of vertebrae body

Weight bearing
Articulates with the vertebrae above and below

13

Function of the vertebral arch

Protects spinal chord

14

What two movements does the spine do?

Lateral flexion, flexion and extension & axial rotation

15

Where does the spinal cord terminate in relation to the vertebral coloumn

L1 & L2

16

Three layers that cover the spinal cord

Dura
Arachnoid
Pia Mater

17

Define intervertebral foramen

Bony borders
Nerves pass through them
Blood vessels pass through them

18

Motor neurons are found where in the spinal cord?

Spinal cord ventral horn

19

Sensory neurons are found where in the spinal cord?

Dorsal root ganglia

20

Where do the motor and sensory neurons mix?

Rami -> larger ventral rami and smaller dorsal rami

21

Intervertebral joints

Located between adjacent vertebrae. These fibrocartilage discs form strong joints and absorb spinal compression shock.

Secondary cartilagenous joint between two bodies

22

Describe Anulus Fibrosus

Concentric lamella rings that alternate found in intervertebral joints

23

Function of Anulus fibrosus

Keeps vertebrae together
Protects against compression
And allows movement in all direction -> so no tearing.

24

Describe the nucleus pulposus in intervertebral joints

Liquid found in the middle of the anulus fibrosus

25

Function of nucleus pulposus

Keeps vertebrae apart
Shock absorber

26

What happens to the nucleus pulposus over time?

Dries out with ages --> become shorter as we grow older

27

Zygopophyseal Joints/Facet Joints

Plane Synovial joint between superior articular process of vertebrae below and inferior articular process of vertebra above
Hyline
Capsule

28

Articular process function

Allow movement in 1 plane

29

Articular processes movement differ due to

Shape and depth of the articular process
eg. Thoracic -> coronal plane --> rotate

30

Three types of ligaments found around the spinal coloumn

Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligs
Interspinous & Supraspinous ligs
Ligament Flava

31

Ligament Flava

Appears yellow --> high elastic composition
Stretch and return back to shape
In the actual vertebral coloumn and attaches to lamena

32

Ligament flava is NB for which movement

Flexing

33

What is a primary curve

foetus and a new-born baby there is a single primary curve that is convex posteriorly

34

What are secondary curves

as the child achieves head control, adopts an upright posture and learns to walk
These are concave posteriorly

35

Where are primary curves and secondary curves found

Primary - thoracic spine and become fixed by fusion in the sacrum
Secondary - lumbar and cervical

36

herniation or prolapse

If a part of the annulus becomes thin and/or weak (both are common with aging) this predisposes to penetration of the nucleus into, or through, the annulus.