VERTEBRAL COLUMN/SPINAL COLUMN - basic embryology Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy > VERTEBRAL COLUMN/SPINAL COLUMN - basic embryology > Flashcards

Flashcards in VERTEBRAL COLUMN/SPINAL COLUMN - basic embryology Deck (34):
1

What are the 3 layers of the embryo called?

ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

2

Invagination of ectoderm along the primitive streak gives rise to what embryonic structure?

notochord

3

What is the name given to the mesoderm that will give rise to the vertebral column?

paraxial mesoderm

4

What does paraxial mesoderm give rise to that will form the vertebral column?

somites

5

Name the areas of cellular differentiation formed within the somite

sclerotome, myotome and dermatome

6

what part of the somite will give rise to the vertebral column?

sclerotome

7

List, in order, the names of the successive vertebral columns formed during development?

membranous, cartilaginous, skeletal or osseous

8

Migration of sclerotomes to surround the notochord forms what developmental feature?

the perichordal blastema

9

The perichordal blastema gives rise to what processes?

neural processes and costal processes

10

What is the name of the artery located between adjacent perichordal blastemae?

intersegmental artery

11

Cell proliferation within the perichordal blastema will result in what features?

a loose cranial scerotomite and a dense caudal sclerotomite

12

What forms between the sclerotomies of a periochordal blastema

the intrasclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner)

13

The intrasclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner) gives rise to what developmental feature?

the perichordal disc

14

The perichordal disc in the presumptive location of what adult feature?

the intervertebral disc

15

What is the earliest embryonic feature that will identify the position of the adult intervertebral disc?

the intrasclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner)

16

The union of a dense caudal scerotomite and a loose cranial sclerotomite from adjacent periochordal blastemae gives rise to what feature?

the vertebral blastema

17

What vessel will be identified adjacent to the vertebral blastema?

the segmental artery

18

when will cartilage first form in the membranous vertebral blastema?

beginning in the 6th embryonic week

19

What is the name given to the replacement of mesoderm by cartilage?

chondrification

20

Chondrification begins in which region of the embryonic vertebral column?

the cervical region

21

What are the names given to the centers of chondrification within the vertebral blastema?

centrum center, neural arch center, transverse process center

22

How many centers of chondrification typically appear in the vertebral blastema?

six: 2 for the centrum, 2 for the neural arch, 2 for each transverse process

23

What is the earliest time that centers of ossification appear in the cartilaginous vertebra?

during the 7th embryonic week

24

Ossification begins in which region of the embryonic vertebral column?

the lower cervical upper thoracic region

25

What is the name given to centers of ossification based on time of appearance?

primary centers appear in utero, secondary centers appear after birth

26

What is the ratio of primary to secondary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra?

3 primary centers: 5 secondary centers

27

What are the names of the primary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra?

centrum centers and neural arch centers

28

How many primary centers of ossification appear in the typical vertebra?

three: 1 for the centrum, 2 for the neural arches

29

What is the classification of the joint forming between primary centers of ossification?

cartilage synchondrosis/amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

30

What are the names of the synchondroses forming between primary centers of ossification in the typical vertebra?

neurocentral synchondrosis and neural arch synchondrosis

31

What are the names of the five secondary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra?

tip of the transverse process, tip of the spinous process, epiphyseal plate centers

32

How many secondary centers of ossification appear in the typical vertebra?

five: 1 for the tip of each transverse process, 1 for the tip of the spinous process, 1 for each epiphyseal plate

33

What are the names of the synchondroses forming between secondary centers of ossification and the rest of the typical vertebra?

tip of the transverse process synchondrosiss, tip of the spinous process synchondrosis, and epiphyseal ring synchondrosis

34

What is the range of appearance for secondary centers of ossification of a typical vertebra?

during puberty, typically ages 11-16 years old