Veterinary Terminology: Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

Vet Prep > Veterinary Terminology: Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Veterinary Terminology: Cardiovascular System Deck (109):
0

three types of blood vessels in the body

arteries
veins
capillaries

1

arteries

large vessels that carry blood away from the heart
their walls are lined with connective tissue, muscle tissue, and elastic fibers with an innermost layer of epithelial called endothelium
elastic walls allow them to expand for the high amount of blood pressure from the heart

2

endothelial cells

found in all blood vessels
secrete factors that affect the size of blood vessels, reduce blood clotting, and promote the growth of blood vessels

3

arterioles

smaller branches of arteries
are thinner than arteries
carry to capillaries

4

capillaries

the tiniest of blood vessels
have walls that are only one endothelial cell in thickness
carry nutrient rich, oxygenated blood to body cells
also carries waste products away from body cells

5

venules

small veins that carry waste filled blood

6

veins

large blood vessel that conducts blood that has given up most of its oxygen toward the heart from the tissues
has thin walls and little elastic tissue, and little connective tissue
contain valves that prevent backflow of blood and keep it moving one direction
muscular action helps the movement of blood

7

forms the circulatory system

Arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, capillaries, heart

8

blood that is deficient of oxygen flows

capillaries to venules to veins (two large veins), the venaue cavae, to heart
enters the right side of the heart and travels through that side into the pulmonary artery

9

pulmonary artery

a vessel that divides into two
one branch to left lung other to right lung
is unusual because it is the only artery that carries deoxygenated blood

10

the pulmonary veins

are unusual because they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood
blood returns from the lungs to the heart

11

pulmonary circulation

deoxygenated blood from veins to heart, to pulmonary artery, to lungs, to pulmonary veins, to heart again

12

oxygen-rich blood enters

the left side of the heart from pulmonary veins

13

aorta

largest single artery in the body
moves up (ascending) then downward (descending)
divides into numerous branches of arteries that carry the oxygen-rich blood

14

names of some arterial branches

brachial
axillary
splenic
gastric
renal
carotid

15

systemic circulation

the pathway of blood from the heart to the tissue capillaries and back to the heart

16

mammalian heart

is a pump consisting of four chambers

17

atria (atrium)

two upper chambers of heart

18

ventricles

two lower chambers of the heart

19

how the blood flows through the chambers of the heart

right side of the heart sends oxygen-deficient blood to the lungs
newly oxygenated blood returns to left side of the heart
oxygenated blood is then pumped through to the body
the body sends oxygen deficient blood then back to the right side of heart
repeat

20

cranial (superior) vena cava

drains blood from the upper portion of the body

21

caudal (inferior) vena cava

carries blood from the lower part of the body

22

tricuspid valve and mitral valve

cusps form a one-way passage designed to keep the blood flowing in only one direction
tricuspid valve- stops flow from right ventricle back into right atrium
mitral valve- stops flow from left ventricle back into left atrium

23

left ventricle

has the thickest walls of all four heart chambers because of having to be able to pump blood throughout the body

24

septa (septum)

partitions that separate the four chambers of the heart

25

the heart has three layers

endocardium
myocardium
pericardium

26

endocardium

a smooth layer of endothelial cells, lines the interior of the heart and heart valves

27

myocardium

the middle, muscular layer of the heart wall
is the thickest layer

28

pericardium

a fibrous and membraneous sac, surrounds the heart

29

visceral pericardium

adhering to the heart

30

parietal pericardium

lining the outer fibrous coat

31

pericardial cavity

between the visceral and parietal pericardia
contains pericardial fluid, which lubricates the membranes as the heart beats

32

avian heart

4 chamber heart like mammals

33

amphibians and most reptiles

have 3 chamber hearts (except crocodiles)
2 atria and 1 ventricle, ventricle mixes of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

34

fish hearts

2 chambered hearts
1 atrium 1 ventricle

35

two phases of a heart beat

diastole
systole

36

diastole

relaxation of the heart
occurs when the ventricle walls relax and blood flows into the heart from the venae cavae and pulmonary veins, the tricuspid and mitral valves open and blood passes from the atria to ventricles, pulmonary and aortic valves are closed

37

systole

contraction of the heart
walls of right and left ventricles contract to pump blood into the pulmonary artery and the aorta
both tricuspid and mitral valves are closed

38

lub dub

the closure of tricuspid and mitral valves
the closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves

39

murmur

an abnormal heart soundd

40

sinoatrial node (SA node)

pacemaker of the heart
current of electricity that causes the walls of the atria to contract and force blood into the ventricles

41

atrioventricular node (AV node)

sends the excitation wave to atrioventricle bundle, bundle divides into left and right branches which form the conduction myofibers that extend through the ventricle walls and stimulates them to contract

42

bundle of His (atrioventricular bundle)

a bundle of specialized muscle fibers

43

electrocardiogram (ECG EKG)

the record used to detect the electrical changes in heart muscle as the heart beats

44

normal sinus rhythm

heart rhythm
originating in the SA node and traveling through the heart

45

sympathetic nerves

speed up the heart rate during conditions of emotional stress or vigorous exercise

46

parasympathetic nerves

slow the heart rate when there is no need for extra pumping

47

fibrillation

rapid random inefficient ND IRREGULAR CONTRACTIONS OF THE ATRIA AND VENTRICLES

48

patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

a duct between the aorta and the pulmonary artery, which normally closes soon after birth, remains open

49

septal defects

smll holes in the septa between the atria or the ventricles

50

congestive heart failure

thee heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood
blood accumulates in the lungs causing pulmonary edema
tight sided heart failure results in accumulation of fluid in the abdominal organs, abdomen, and subcutaneous tissues of the legs

51

endocarditis

inflammation of the inner lining of the heart, usually caused by bacteria

52

mitral regurgitation

back flow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium due to congenital malformation of the mitral valve or degeneration of the mitral valve over time

53

murmur

an extra heart sound, heard between normal beats.
usually caused by a valvular defect

54

thrill

a vibration felt on palpation of the chest, often accompanies a murmur

55

stenosis

a narrowing at the aortic and pulmonary valves
usually are congenital malformations

56

arteriogenesis

the formation of arteries (vascularization)

57

augiography

the radiographic visualization of blood vessels following the introduction of contrast media

58

angiogenesis

the formation of blood vessels in the embryo

59

vascular

having a copious blood supply

60

neovascularization

appearance of blood vessels into an area of previous ischemia

61

vasoactive

exerting an effect on the diameter of a blood vessel

62

vasoconstruction

decrease in the diameter of blood vessels

63

vasodilation

increase in the diameter of blood vessels, especially arterioles, leading to an increase of blood supply to an area

64

vasospasm

constriction of blood vessels

65

arteriopathy

any disease of an artery

66

arteritis

inflammation of an artery

67

equine viral arteritis

a frequently fatal disease of horses, caused by the equine arteritis virus, affects primarily smaller arteries, with resultant hemorrhage enteritis, abdominal pain, and diarrhea and pulmonary edema.

68

vasculitis

inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel

69

arteriosclerosis

hardening of a blood or lymph vessel

70

artherosclerosis

a condition in which yellow plaques, containing cholesterol and lipid materials, are insinuated into the walls of the arteries

71

arterionecrosis

death of the cells comprising an artery

72

arterioplasty

surgical repair or re-construction of an artery

73

cardiology

the science or study of the heart

74

cardiologist

a scientist who studies the heart and its functions

75

normal sinus rhythm

a regular rhythm of heart beats at rest, determined by auscultation or palpating a peripheral pulse

76

normal sinus arrhythmia

an irregular but normal heart beat in an athletic animal that speeds up and slows down, often with inspiration and expiration, respectively

77

pericardium

the connective tissue sac that houses the heart

78

atria

the two low pressure chambers of the heart that receive venous blood and pump it into the ventricles

79

ventricles

the two high pressure chambers of the heart that are responsible for pumping blood to the lungs (right) and to the general circulation (left)

80

cardiovascular

pertaining to the heart and blood vessels

81

electrocardiography

a recording of the electrical activity of the heart

82

cardiomyopathy

non inflammatory disease of heart muscle.
there are several types
etiologies can be species specific

83

congestive heart failure

a condition in which the heart is failing as a pump

84

myocardial infarction

absent blood supply to cardiac muscle leading to cell death

85

myocarditis

inflammation of cardia muscle

86

endocarditis

inflammation of the inner lining of the heart, including heart valves

87

cardiomegaly

abnormal enlargement of the heart, whether from hypertrophy or dilation

88

cardiopulmonary

pertaining to heart and lungs

89

angi/o

vessel

90

aort/o

aorta

91

arter/o arteri/o

artery

92

ather/o

yellowish plaque, fatty substance

93

atri/o

atrium
upper heart chamber

94

brachi/o

arm

95

cardi/o

heart

96

coron/o

heart

97

cyan/o

blue

98

ox/o

oxygen

99

pericardi/o

pericardium

100

phleb/o

vein

101

sphygm/o

pulse

102

steth/o

chest

103

thromb/o

clot

104

valvul/o
valv/o

valve

105

vas/o

vessel

106

vascul/o

vessel

107

ven/o
ven/i

vein

108

venticul/o

ventricle
lower heart chamber

Decks in Vet Prep Class (47):